BEIJING, March 25 ( Xinhua) — According tomedia reports, the human body is an incredible living machine, strong enough legs to run marathons, smart enough for the brain to know that invisible dark matter exists, our body can hear the right frequency, know when to stop drinking water. But there are still many mysteries to be solved about the human body, so for years we’ve been trying to explore the mysteries of the discovery of human organ tissue, and here are the top 10 secrets to the recent discovery of the human body:
1. Jelly hearing: Human hearing is so good, probably because there is a very small “jelly violin” in the ear, this ultra-thin tissue is called “top cover film”, the composition of 97% is water. The organization, which transmits sound waves from the ear to the neuroreceptor and then into electrical signals that the brain can read, and a new study on the body of mice has found that jelly tissue in the ear helps the cochlear implants distinguish between high and low frequencies, and the organization uses hardness to distinguish between high and low sound waves, which work based on how water flows through small holes. It’s like a violin or a guitar tune.
2. Microvascular: Human bones may be covered with unknown networks of micro-channels that may be crucial to the circulation of bone-made immune cells in the blood, a team of researchers has found that there are hundreds of such small blood vessels, or “microvascular vessels”, on the bones of mice’ legs. But the findings in the mice’s bodies don’t necessarily apply to humans, so one researcher decided to put their legs in an MRI machine to test them, and the results showed that there was such a network of microchannels on the bones of the human leg, suggesting that the human body also had microvascular vessels.
3, the brain predicts drinking water: By implanting fibers and lenses near the hypothalamus in mice, the team found that the brain uses a predictive mechanism in the gut to ensure that we don’t drink too much or too little water, according to a new study. The hypothalamus is the brain region that regulates blood pressure and other physical conditions and is home to “thirsty cells”. After drinking water for a few seconds, the mouth and throat begin to send signals to the brain that tell the brain that you feel less hungry and thirsty, and then stop drinking water. This way people don’t drink water again for 10-60 minutes until the water actually enters the bloodstream and circulates through the cells in the body. But without another mysterious signal, your mouth and throat will tell your brain that it needs to quench its thirst, no matter what type of liquid you drink, a signal that comes from the body’s intestines, letting the brain know whether the water it drinks is salt yabreal or fresh water, making sure people drink fresh water to quench their thirst.
4, the body’s new organs: In 2019, scientists discovered an unknown human organ, located beneath the skin, which helps the body feel the tingling of needles, which were previously thought to be perceived by nerve endings below the outer layer of the skin, but new research on mice shows that certain special cells are entangled with nerve tissue. Helps with the perception of pain, the trial was applied to humans to obtain the same conclusion. This branch of the cell, known as the Schwann cell, binds to nerve tissue to form a new type of “sensory organ” that responds to external pressure signals, such as tingling, and transmits information to the brain.
5, lizard-like muscles: Scientists found that the fetus grows lizard-like limb muscles, will disappear before birth, and by looking at 3D images of the fetus, scientists found that the fetus in the seventh week of pregnancy, hands and feet each grew 30 muscles, after 6 weeks, only 20 muscles, before the baby was born, The exact cause of these excess muscles either blends with other muscles or shrinks. The researchers believe these temporary muscles may have been left over from the evolution of human ancestors. It may have disappeared in adulthood 250 million years ago, when mammals were just beginning to evolve from mammalian-like reptiles, but because of the small size of the study and the need for replication validation in larger populations, it was possible to determine whether all fetuses had these “lizard muscles.”
6, the world’s oldest person: The way to live a long life for an over-centenarian or an over-110-year-old is a mystery, and a new 2019 study shows that super-centenarians have an immune cell called “T-assisted cells” that protect them from viruses and tumors. To find out, the researchers took blood samples from seven ultra-centenarians and five control participants, aged between 50 and 80, who isolated immune cells from blood samples and analyzed the secrets of the longevity of the super-centenarians by measuring the messenger RNA produced by genes in cells. Messenger RNA is a genetic instruction from DNA and is brought into the nucleus to produce a specific protein. Supercentenarians have a Type of T-assisted cell called CD4 CTLs, which has the ability to attack and kill other cells, although it is not clear whether the supercentenarians are longevity due to these immune cells, but previous researchers have previously found that these cells can attack tumor cells and protect mice from viral infections.
7, wonderful brain efficiency: There may be a reason why some people seem to have a very efficient brain, they are “all-knowing” and good at dealing with trivia. German scientists now analyze the brains of 324 people and find that they have varying degrees of common sense or pragmatic memory (information that appears in computer games), and their problems involve art, architecture and science. Brain scans of the participants showed that those who could remember more common sense had more effective brain connections — shorter, stronger connections between brain cells. There is some truth in this conclusion, one can imagine answering the question: “What year did the first time humans first landed on the moon?” “We may store the word “moon” in one area of the brain, while the term “moon” is stored in another region, and participants with an efficient brain can better connect information in different areas to answer questions quickly.” But the researchers found no link between the existence of more knowledge and brain cells.
8, X immune cells: Scientists have found an unknown type of cell in the human body, called “X immune cell”, which can be used as the other two types of immune cells, is the main driver of the autoimmune response of type 1 diabetes. It is unlikely that the human body will have a large number of such cells, perhaps less than seven out of every 10,000 white blood cells, but x immune cells are “powerful players” in driving autoimmune when the body mistakenly treats its cells as alien invasive cells. It is similar to B cells and T cells, which are important for fighting infection and also fight autoimmune diseases, X immune cells that produce B-cell-like antibodies that activate T-cells and then attack cells it considers to be foreign. In the case of type 1 diabetes, immune cells mistakenly destroy healthy cells in the pancreas that produce adenocynoline, which researchers say exists in people with type 1 diabetes, but not in healthy control populations. Even so, it is unclear whether one or more cells are causing the disease.
9. The tongue has an sense of smell: In other ways, cells on people’s tongues have the ability to smell, as researchers found after developing human taste cells in a laboratory, and they found that these cells contain molecules found in olfactory cells, which are present in the nose and are responsible for mastering olfactory function. They found that when taste cells on the tongue come into contact with odor molecules, they respond in the same way as olfactory cells, which are not uncommon, and that olfactory cells have been found in the intestines, sperm cells, and even hair. Although we know that taste and smell are closely linked, the study suggests that human taste cells may be more complex than previously thought.
10. Human Endurance Limits: It turns out that even endurance athletes have limited physical fitness, according to new calculations by scientists The limit of human endurance is about 2.5 times the human body’s resting metabolic rate, which refers to the number of calories per person per day for basic physiological needs such as maintaining body temperature or breathing. They come to this conclusion by analyzing data from extreme endurance competitions, such as extreme endurance races in the United States, where they found that the longer they exercised, the more calories they burned. When athletes’ endurance limits reach the 2.5-fold threshold for the body’s resting metabolic rate, they don’t fall to the ground, they can continue to hold on, and they start losing weight in the long run without being able to balance their calorie intake and burn. What’s more, the researchers found that women give birth to children with a resting metabolic rate of 2.2 times, so whatever activity, giving birth, cycling, and running across the United States, the body’s limits are limited, and when calories are not balanced, fat is burned to achieve weight loss. (Ye Ding Cheng)