2019 Top 10 Exoplanets Discovered: Water Vapor and Cloud-Related Exoplanets

BEIJING, March 26 (Xinhua) — According tomedia reports, a collision of exoplanets: Scientists who found many warm dust clusters in the planetary system BD-20 307, about 300 light-years from Earth, began to get excited because they may be strong evidence of recent planetary collisions. Such observations were first presented 10 years ago and confirmed again in April 2019.

2019 Top 10 Exoplanets Discovered: Water Vapor and Cloud-Related Exoplanets

For scientists, the discovery could help provide a deeper understanding of how collision symoldering processes affect the formation and evolution of planetary systems, much like Earth, because it is believed that the Earth and moon were formed after a huge impact.

2019 Top 10 Exoplanets Discovered: Water Vapor and Cloud-Related Exoplanets

2. Wandering exoplanets may orbit black holes: In October 2019, scientists used computer models to discover that an exoplanet similar to Neptune, free from star gravity, orbits a supermassive black hole that may be at the edge of a light-eating black hole, about 10-30 light-years from the black hole. The planet is running with a tail structure made up of frozen dust. According to the model, this greedy black hole could be the host of tens of thousands of wandering exoplanets. The explanation is challenging in the field of exoplanet exploration, for example: astronomers can’t use the solar method to discover such planets, which typically observe changes in light before and after an exoplanet passes through the main star, but the black hole devours light, which is clearly not feasible.

2019 Top 10 Exoplanets Discovered: Water Vapor and Cloud-Related Exoplanets

3. Exoplanets with water vapor and clouds: In September 2019, scientists first reported the presence of water vapor on exoplanets, and they found that an exoplanet called K2-18 b had water vapor and clouds, an exciting discovery for scientists looking for signs of extraterrestrial life.

2019 Top 10 Exoplanets Discovered: Water Vapor and Cloud-Related Exoplanets

4, “Football Planet”: In August 2019, astronomers discovered a soccer-shaped exoplanet whose atmosphere is rapidly falling off, while also losing heavy metals such as iron and magnesium. Its orbit is so close to the sun that it is hotter than any other known planet, with an upper atmosphere of 2,538 degrees Celsius. As it approaches the host star, it not only heats up, but also causes it to swell like a football, because the star’s gravity tears it to pieces. Scientists are using the Hubble Space Telescope to make this original observation, but they hope to use the James Webb Space Telescope, launched in 2021, to further study the exoplanet.

2019 Top 10 Exoplanets Discovered: Water Vapor and Cloud-Related Exoplanets

5. Snowball Exoplanets: At some point in their life course, the snowball exoplanet may form a tidal lock with its main star, always presenting the same side of the hemisphere, which eventually forms a huge, eye-like, icy ocean on the face of the planet. As a young planet, Earth has experienced a snowball period, which is why scientists speculate that the snowball exoplanets may be able to sustain life, and a July 2019 study suggests that they are even better suited to sustain life than originally thought. The study, which focused on what might happen on the surface of these snowball planets, rather than just observing their surface oceans, suggests that the snowball planet may have a relatively mild inland zone with temperatures of around 10 degrees Celsius, making it easy to breed life forms in this environment.

2019 Top 10 Exoplanets Discovered: Water Vapor and Cloud-Related Exoplanets

6, liveable planet GJ 357 d: In July 2019, scientists used TESS data to discover another potentially habitable exoplanet, which identified three exoplanets in the dwarf system GJ 357, 31 light-years from Earth. Two of the exoplanets, GJ 357 c and GJ 357 d, can be classified as “super-Earths”, i.e. a slightly larger planet than Earth, and GJ 357 b is known as a “hot Earth”, meaning that while they may be similar in size to Earth, their surface temperatures are higher, possibly reaching 254 degrees Celsius. Astronomers are currently very concerned about GJ 357 d because it may be in a habitable zone, orbiting the main star every 55 Earth days.

2019 Top 10 Exoplanets Discovered: Water Vapor and Cloud-Related Exoplanets

7, the two-star system of gas-state baby planet: In March 2019, scientists used the Lingsun Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) to discover a gaseous exoplanet, it is in its infancy, only 43 million years old, it is named “DS Tuc Ab”, orbiting a star in the binary system, It only takes 8 days to wrap around a week. Because the exoplanet is relatively young, scientists hope to survey it to gain important clues about the formation of the solar system’s planets, such as the loss of large amounts of gas due to its close exposure to the main star. Scientists hope to analyze the planet to speculate on what will happen if planets in the solar system, such as Earth, lose their atmosphere.

2019 Top 10 Exoplanets Discovered: Water Vapor and Cloud-Related Exoplanets

8. Mysterious planet has “3 suns”: NASA’s Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) recently observed a mysterious exoplanet in a Samsung system with a surface temperature of 160 degrees Celsius, called LTT The exoplanet 1445Ab is 22.5 light-years from Earth, and although it has three stars, it appears to orbit one of them every five days for a week, with two other red dwarfs looming in the sky of the exoplanet.

2019 Top 10 Exoplanets Discovered: Water Vapor and Cloud-Related Exoplanets

9, “Ploonets”: In a preprinted paper published on the arXiv website in July 2019, scientists gave a strange name to a satellite, The Ploones, which they point out are torn apart by the gravitational pull of their main planet and pulled toward their main star. Not only are they a satellite, but they are not exactly an exoplanet, so they need a more precise definition. The journey of wandering satellites around the main star (and the subsequent slow death) may leave a signal of identifiable light, which researchers believe may explain some mysterious astronomical observations.

2019 Top 10 Exoplanets Discovered: Water Vapor and Cloud-Related Exoplanets

10, Teegarden’s Star: In June 2019, researchers reported that they had discovered two exoplanets orbiting a red dwarf called the Tygaden Star, which is only 12.5 light-years from Earth. The two newly discovered planets orbit the main star for a week with only 4.9 and 11.4 Earth days, respectively, and although their orbits are close, they are still thought to exist in the habitable zone.