2019 will be the 50th anniversary of the development of ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet, in 1969. The Conversion, an academic news site, has compiled five major incidents that have occurred half a century since the Internet was born. There was an incident in which a high school student broke into ARPANET, which was supposed to be fully managed by the U.S. Department of Defense. In response, Vinton Surf and Robert Kahn, who are counted as members of the “father of the Internet,” advocated that the fundamental parts of the network should be highly encrypted and conducted research. However, Surf and others’ efforts failed in 1978 due to opposition and did not happen.
By garloon Surf and others don’t publicly speak to anyone who objected to encryption, but what some people objected to is a blur in a paper published in 1983 by Mr. Surf. The loss of the opportunity for essential encryption on the Internet requires today’s Internet users to maintain security with complex passwords and multi-factor authentication, and to protect their privacy with anonymization technologies such as Tor. On the other hand, The Conversation noted that “early PCs were not capable of very poor performance and efficient cryptographic communication, so if the Internet had been encrypted, we might not have seen the spread as it is today,” and it cannot be evaluated on one side. The Birth of the TCP/IP Protocol (1983) Instead of the aforementioned cryptographic communication, Mr. Surf and others developed the TCP/IP protocol, which was completed in 1983. With the advent of this communication protocol, PCs around the world have acquired a common language, and network efficiency has improved dramatically. One of the biggest features of the TCP/IP protocol is that it has reduced the role of the network to the limit and reduced the burden to enable the integration of all networks. It is often referred to as the lightness of the burden of the TCP/IP protocol that “theoretically works with thread phones”. In fact, there is also an implementation plan to become “IP by bird carrier” using a carrier pigeon, and in South Africa, while half-joking, there is also a rare thing that “the transmission pigeon communication is confirmed overwhelmingly faster than the slow Internet of the country”.
by Zac Ong 3: Section 230 (1996) By 1996, 22% of Americans used the Internet, and the Internet spread explosively. Along with this, the surge of pornography has led to the trouble of American politicians. So James Exxon, then a senator, enacted the Communications Quality Act. We tried to regulate the Internet to eradicate. However, IT companies and civic groups have rallied against the regulation, saying it would “undermine freedom of expression.” The debate was brought to the Supreme Court’s court. At this time, the Supreme Court concluded that “regulation of the Internet is unconstitutional”. In response to this, the Communications Quality Act provides a provision that “providers and users of PC services that conduct two-way communications are not responsible as publishers or callers of content provided by other content providers”, and is referred to as Section 230 of the Communications Quality Act (commonly known as Section 230). Section 230, which consists of 26 words, is also known as “the 26 words that made the Internet” and is said to be a revolutionary provision that protected Internet freedom. On the other hand, some regulatory arguethat that “Section 230 allowed Facebook and Twitter to manage the network in a wild way,” and that’s a pros and cons. 4: U.S. Government Opening of the Internet (1998) The TCP/IP protocol requires content on the Internet to have a unique IP address, but the IP address is only a list of numbers like “192.168.2.201” and was difficult for humans to remember. As a result, IP addresses were managed by linking them to more memorable domains such as “indiana.edu”, but at first the management of the domain was left to only one American computer scientist, John Postel. So there was an argument that we should set up a domain-controlling organization, but it was the U.S. government that waited for that discussion. The U.S. Department of Commerce, which thought that the U.S.-developed Internet should be managed by the U.S. government, published a document, commonly known as green paper, entitled “Proposals for Improvement of Technical Management of Internet Names and Addresses” and embarked on Internet management.
By GotCredit However, due to the fierce opposition of Internet officials, the government’s newly published document “Managing Internet Names and Addresses”, commonly known as a white paper, states The Internet was realized through The investment of the U.S. government,” but the private-sector-led process was to be maintained. As a result, domain management is handled by private organizations such as InterNIC and ICANN, and the Internet is now open to the whole world, not under the control of a single government. The dawn of cyber warfare (2010) In June 2010, “Staxnet”, a malware used in attacks targeting Iranian nuclear facilities, was discovered. Stacksnet, allegedly shot to Iran by the National Security Agency (NSA), is said to be “the first digital attack in history that caused physical damage.” As of 2019, almost a decade after The Discovery of Staxnet in 2010, cyberattacks have become a common means of war, and individuals using the Internet are no longer unrelated to these attacks. On the other hand, in accordance with the Geneva Convention, which stipulates the humanitarian treatment of prisoners of war on the battlefield, discussions to establish the “Digital Geneva Convention” that includes provisions that prohibit attacks on facilities that serve as lifelines for citizens, such as infrastructure, Efforts to protect the peace of the Internet are also continuing. Against this backdrop, The Conversation said that “the events on Internet peace that will occur in 2019 will be a milestone in the next 50 years.” He stressed that 2019 is an important time for the Internet.