More than 100 teams around the world are currently working on new crown candidates, several of which have begun clinical trials,media BGR reported. Earlier, it was reported that Scientists at Oxford University developed a new coronavirus candidate vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 has entered the phase 1 human trial phase, as soon as September can be used emergency. The researchers have published their first study detailing their studies in mice and monkeys, showing that the COVID-19 vaccine prevents the virus from replicating in animals.
Scientists at Oxford University said a few weeks ago that “the first million doses of the vaccine could be available by September”. “The macaques are almost the closest we have to humans,” Dr Munster said at the time, referring to the six monkeys that were vaccinated and exposed to the virus. The results of the study, which allowed the Oxford team to move quickly into clinical trials, were published in an unscripted pre-print, he said.
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is made from a virus called ChAdOx1, which can infect chimpanzees but can also reproduce in humans. The researchers added a specific protein-S protein for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This is a key element of the virus, allowing it to link to ACE2 receptors in the nose, lungs, blood vessels and other organs of human cells. The researchers hope to use ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 to train the immune system that has not been exposed to SARS-CoV-2, to recognize the S protein and to produce an immune response (antibodies) to prevent the virus from attacking cells.
The researchers gave six monkeys ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and looked at antibodies 14 days after immunity. They waited another two weeks and challenged the six monkeys and the control group with SARS-CoV-2. They then tested all the monkeys for a new coronavirus and looked at nasal swabs and bronchial alveoli irrigation (BAL) from the lungs.
The researchers said all animal swabs had viruses, but BAL tests showed that only two vaccinated monkeys had viral genomic RNA in their lungs. Crucially, the virus did not replicate, which can happen in subjects who have not been vaccinated.
All the monkeys were then euthanized and tissue samples were taken. None of the vaccinated monkeys showed signs of lung lesions consistent with COVID-19, the study said. “All lung hetology is normal, no evidence of viral pneumonia has been observed, and no immune-boosting inflammatory diseases have been observed,” the study said. In contrast, two of the three control animals developed some degree of severe viral interstitial pneumonia 7 days after infection.
The researchers say the study proves that even if the monkey’s nose does have a virus, the vaccine is effective in preventing the virus from replicating in the lower respiratory tract. “However, animals have accepted high doses of the virus in a variety of ways, which probably does not reflect real-world human exposure. “Equally important, this study confirms that the candidate vaccine does not lead to “immune-enhanced disease” in vaccinated animals.
The data from the study allowed the team to move into Phase 1 trials, which began on April 23 with a cohort trial of 1,110 patients. The combined phases 2 and 3 trials are likely to begin this month, with up to 5,000 participants. AstraZeneca has previously announced a partnership with Oxford University to develop and sell ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 on a large scale.