The true vortex is a magical creature, best known for its super-regenerative ability: cutting off its head, and the rest of the body can grow a new head, amazingly. In fact, the regenerative ability of this magical creature is highly accurate. Scientists have found that, if it wasn’t simply rough-cut off, it would simply cut off its eyes, and after a few days, the eyes of the real vortex could be brought back to the long, and the new eyes would function normally.
True vortex has a very strong regenerative capacity.
This phenomenon is inexplicable to scientists. After all, it’s not enough to have normal function in the eye, and to grow only photosensitive cells. These animals must also connect photosensitive cells to the brain’s nerves. During embryonic development, a class of “road sign cells” tells nerve cells how to travel through complex three-dimensional anatomical environments, when elongated, when to turn, when to stop, and eventually to open the neural pathways of vision.
However, many of these road sign cells appear only briefly during embryonic development and will soon disappear. So the adult real vortex, and what mystery has mastered, can make the eye reborn?
In a science paper published today, a team from the Whitehead Institute in Massachusetts answered the question.
Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology, researchers found a small batch of brand new cells near the real vortex’s visual system. These cells have a high degree of colocation with the nerves, either near the eye, near the position of the photosensitive cells protruding from the nerve axons, or along the path of the axons.
Surprisingly, the newly discovered “road sign cells” were found, and based on the characteristics of gene expression, the researchers were surprised to find that two of them were muscle cells! “In most animals, muscle cells don’t do it. “The first author of this study, M. Dr. Lucia Scimone said. In other animals, most of the “road sign cells” are neurons and glial cells.
Visual neuronucleogenies/photosensitive cell neurons (cyan) and road sign cells (purple) under a microscope (Photo: Lucila Scimone, Whitehead Institute)
Do these muscle cells really affect the distribution of new nerves? To test this hypothesis, the researchers developed an “eye transplant” technique that transplants the eyes of a real vortex into another. The study found that these new eyes do protrude neurons toward these muscle cells and adjust their forward direction after touching them, eventually connecting with the brain and exercising normal visual function.
Interestingly, if the researchers transplanted these eyes to other parts of the real vortex body (lacking this particular muscle cell), photosensitive neurons would not find a way to the brain. Similarly, the same results can occur if these muscle cells are removed and then transplanted.
Two types of muscle cells help pave the neural pathways in the eye after transplantation
How do these magical muscle cells know where to appear to guide the distribution of nerves? Subsequent studies have found that special signaling molecules are secreted in the muscles to tell where the finger-pointing cells are going. If these signal molecules are interfered with, the cells that lead the way get lost, go to the wrong place, and guide the nerves to the wrong place.
“This is an exciting new direction for the future, ” said Peter W. Professor Reddien said: “We now know the transcription groups of these cells, which means that we know all the genes they express. This will allow us to list interesting genes, explore their function, and see what affects the function of these cells. “
The magic vortex may be hiding the secret to treating human nerve damage
The journal Science gave a special commentary on the paper. The review concludes that this work has brought a new direction to the regeneration of human nerves. One day, we may be able to simulate the function of these road sign cells and guide the formation of neuronucleogenics. This is a boon for patients with nerve damage for a variety of reasons.