Currently, the world’s largest atomic collider, the Large Hadron Collider, has “born” a rare tetracyt particle known as the “top quark.” The mainstream physics theory of subatomic interactions, the Standard Model, has predicted the presence of these tetracyn particles, but recent physics theories suggest that they may form more than standard models predict. The discovery of the tetracyllacyl particle is the first step in testing the theory, and the latest findings were presented at the LHCP 2020 conference.
According to a report in the journal Physical Review D published in 2019, the top quark is the heaviest known elementary subatomic particle, with each top quark having a mass equivalent to about one tungsten atom. However, each top quark is much smaller than a proton, which means that the top quarknot not only keeps records of the heaviest particles, but they are also the densest known form of mass.
Although large numbers of top quarks form in the early stages of the Big Bang, their lifetimes are very short and disappear completely in about 1 trillionths of a second. Today, the only environment in which top quarks can be produced and observed is in large particle accelerators.
In 1995, scientists first discovered the top quark in the Fermi Laboratory Mega Electron Volt accelerator, which was located outside Chicago and was decommissioned.
In 2011, the Large Hadron Collider assumed that the mantle was the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, and that the collider was arranged by nearly 10,000 powerful magnetic rings in a 27-kilometer-long ring structure, accelerating the two proton beams in opposite directions, colliding at 13 trillion electron volts and colliding 100 times more frequently than megavolt accelerators.
In 1995, particle beam collisions in the Fermi Lab mega electron volt accelerator formed top quarks and antimatter quark pairs, but these collisions occur only once in a few days. In contrast, in the Curved Large Hadron Collider Instrument (ATLAS) experiment and the compact mesosole solenoid experiment (CMS), higher energy and higher collision frequencies form about a pair of top quarks per second.
In recent experiments, researchers are looking for the simultaneous production of two sets of top quark/antiquark pairs, predicting these more complex collision events based on standard models, which should be 70,000 times more frequent than the one that produces a pair of top quark collisions. When looking for new particles, it is important to observe how likely it is that collisions occur by accident. The results can be measured by the Sigma unit.
In particle physics, the gold standard for the discovery of top quarks is declared to be more than 5 sigmas, meaning that current observations are caused by random fluctuations with a probability of occurring at only one in 3.5 million. 3 Sigma means that the probability of an observation signal occurring by chance is only one in 740, which, according to Fermi’s lab researchers, is “the best evidence” of the observations. At present, the evidence for top quarks producing quadruplets is not enough to be declared a new discovery.
In 2015-2018, physicists looked for quadruped quarks in data collected by ATLAS and CMS instruments, and the ATLAS team said they had seen the formation of four top quarks at the 4.3 sigma class. Meanwhile, the CMS researchers found only 2.6 sigmas in top quarks of quadruplets, and before the experiments, THE ATLAS and CMS instruments predicted a confidence level of 2.6 sigma for the top quarks of the quadruplets, according to a paper published in the European Journal of Physics C.
The significance observed by the ATLAS instrument may be accidental, or it may be just a sign that quadruprate-top quarks are more common than standard model predictions, which could also mean that the measurement is an unexpected new clue to physics. The researchers say the additional data generated by the next Large Hadron Collider operation, as well as the further expansion of the analytical techniques used, will improve the accuracy of this challenging measurement.