Astronomers have discovered the full-exposure core of a gas giant planet orbiting a sun-like star in close orbit. The discovery will provide astronomers with a rare opportunity to explore the core of an ancient alien world, and their discovery will give us an idea of the core of the gas giant planets in the solar system, including Jupiter and Saturn.
NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) discovered the core, which is designed to observe the vast night sky and look for tiny depressions in the starlight, as the planet passes between telescopes and distant star surfaces. TESS recorded such fluctuations on a sun-like star about 730 light-years from Earth. Analysis of the data shows that the star is being orbited by an object, now known as TOI 849 b, orbiting it very closely, about the size of Neptune in our solar system.
According to the team, TOI 849 b is so close to the star that it orbits every 18 hours. In addition to bringing an incredibly short year to this strange object, the compact orbit will expose TOI 849 b to an excessive radiation from its parent star, causing its surface temperature to reach around 1800K. The star’s companion star was found to be orbiting a space region around the star, a region that astronomers do not expect to find a planet larger than Neptune, according to current models.
After the first discovery, astronomers used the HARPS instrument installed at the European Southern Observatory’s 3.6-meter telescope in the Atacama Desert in Chile to track the observations. HARPS is able to accurately track tiny wobbles in the exoplanet’s movement around the star. These wobbles are represented by the planet’s light signals. From the HARPS data, the quality of TOI 849 b can be calculated. Once measured in combination with the size of the planet, the researchers were able to estimate its density and make the best guess at the world’s composition. The researchers found that TOI 849 b has a mass equivalent to about 40 Earths, but its radius is only 3.4 times that of Earth. Therefore, its density must be very large, indicating that it consists mainly of iron, rock and water, while the relatively light elements of hydrogen and helium are very small.
This is odd because objects like TOI 849 b should accumulate large amounts of hydrogen and helium during planetary formation. Simply put, it should be a gas giant similar to Jupiter in our solar system. Based on a combination of the expected gas, the dense composition of the extraterrestrial world and its tight orbit, the researchers concluded that TOI 849 b is an exposed planetary core. The team then tried to determine the cause. To do this, the researchers entered their data into a scientific model of the Berne model called Planetary Formation and Evolution. The Berne model takes into account a range of processes known to be critical in planetary development and evolution, such as the accretion disk behavior known to be formed by their cohesion, and how young planetary bodies interact with each other under gravitational forces.
Two possible scenarios have been suggested to explain the events that led to the discovery of the exposed core. One possibility is that the object was indeed similar to Jupiter, and its huge gas cladding was subsequently depleted. Intense stellar radiation could siphon large amounts of material off the surface of the gas-state giant and blast it into space. However, this does not tell the whole story of the atmosphere of the gas giant planet. It must also be violently collided with another planetary body at some point in the distant past, or severely damaged as it passes too close to the parent star. Or, TOI 849 b might just be a failed gas giant planet.