1 m (minus 20 times square meters) of 1000000000000000000000000000, a 40-kilogram mirror at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the United States, which was “kicked” by quantum ups and downs. “The size of a hydrogen atom is about 10 minus 10 times square meters, which means that this displacement is to the hydrogen atom, just like the hydrogen atom is to us. Lee McCuller, a scientist at the MIT Caffrey Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, said.
(Original title: Quantum ups and downs first measured on human-sized objects: moving 10 minus 20 square meters)
Journalist Yu Han Chess
As a subtle microscopic phenomenon, quantum ups and downs are the first to be observed on objects of the same magnitude as the human body. Previously, scientists had only observed quantum ups and downs moving nanoscale materials. Thanks to the mirror device, which is designed to be sensitive enough: it was this mirror that was involved in the first discovery of gravitational waves in 2015.
The paper was published on the evening of July 1st, Beijing time, in the world’s top academic journal, the British journal Nature.
Quantum ups and downs
Unlike our everyday perspective, quantum mechanics describes mechanisms in the microworld that tend to subvert our macro-world view. For example, quantum mechanics holds that vacuum is non-empty, and that countless particles are born instantaneously and instantaneously, rising and falling like sea tides, constituting a quantum background noise.
Our bodies, too, are immersed in such ups and downs in the quantum field, always subjected to the “tidal tide”. However, the body’s own heat and movement is too large, quantum ups and downs this effect is like the eucalyptus ants shake trees.
However, this experiment proved that the “big tree” is not a wire motion, but under the quantum ups and downs effect of the movement of 10 minus 20 square meters.
It would not have been a mirror at the LIGO Laser Interference Gravitational Wave Observatory to get such a precise number.
Gravitational waves are an important inference in Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which is figuratively likened to “the ripples of space and space”. Time and space bend before mass, and space-time, in the process of stretching and compressing, generates vibrations that propagate, which are gravitational waves.
The LIGO Laser Interference Gravitational Wave Observatory has designed two L-shaped vacuum pipes, 4 km long and one mirror at the end. There is a laser source at the inflection point in the middle of L, firing a laser beam along both tubes at the same time. We know that normally they should be reflected in the mirror at the same time, back to the middle point to meet. But if you encounter a disturbance of gravitational waves, there is a time difference.
Obviously, in order to determine the result of gravitational waves, the experimental device needs to eliminate all kinds of external noise. After successfully measuring gravitational waves, MIT’s team opened the brain further: Can LIGO detect smaller fluctuations, such as quantum ups and downs inside the device?
By adding a “quantum compressor” to continuously regulate quantum noise in liGO devices, the researchers were able to eliminate the effects of other conventional noises, resulting in a mirror with a displacement of minus 20 square meters from quantum ups and downs.
At the same time, they have explored ways to reduce quantum noise by measuring quantum noise, helping to further improve LIGO’s sensitivity and listen to faint gravitational waves from deeper in the universe.