Beijing time on July 6, according tomedia reports, to reveal the mystery of life on Mars, or will reveal the mystery of the origin of the Earth’s human! This summer, NASA’s Perseverance will set off for the edge of Mars’ Jezelo crater, with the goal of learning more about our neighboring planets and collecting samples to bring back to Earth. Scientists hope to capture as many signs of life as possible by studying the ancient carbonate rock on the northern edge of the crater. Anything we find there, even fossils left over from ancient times, could provide important clues as to how early life on Earth was conceived.
In the Earth’s deep biosphere, scientists have discovered bacteria that charge themselves by eating or breathing simple Earth fuel. This may be an important clue that scientists are beginning to search for life on Mars, one of the main targets of NASA’s Perseverance rover.
Mars is largeand and can only cover parts of the region at a cost lying cost, so it is necessary to develop some options to narrow the search. Even if we assume that life on Earth and life on Mars were born independently, we can also find important clues to the evolution of life on Mars. By far the most highly respected approach is to focus on the common behavior of all known forms of life: the ability to obtain energy from the environment, and by analyzing different metabolic systems, we find that the cell’s wonderful goal can be summed up as a common strategy, simply: electricity.
Current is often thought of as a human technology: a well-designed network of circuits that weave through the entire human civilization to meet human needs. But when lightning crosses the sky in heavy rain, it slows the yellow iron ore crystals to rust, oil fields burn, and early humans didn’t invent electricity, no matter how much we longed for it. In fact, electricity appears earlier than humans, exists earlier than life on Earth, and as an inanimate physical process, it is also the driving force of organisms to acquire the energy of life.
Energy can do a lot of work, and cells are the basic units of life that we know, building proteins, replicating themselves, and resisting the ubiquitous gravitational pull. In the familiar Earth biosphere, organisms rely on solar energy to provide their own kinetic energy, or consume the sun’s organic products directly through photosynthesis, both processes that are largely electrical. The same is true of the metabolism of the deep subsurface biosphere, where a dark parallel world exists thousands of meters below, and at depths of thousands of meters underground, scientists have discovered bacteria that charge themselves by eating and breathing simple Earth fuel, which may provide important clues to the search for primitive life on planets such as Mars.
From a cosmic perspective, it is difficult to rule out the possibility of life on any planet.
It is almost generally accepted that the surface of Mars is not suitable for life, but beneath the surface there is liquid water, residual geothermal activity and slow-cooling radiation, and scientists suspect they may find conditions on Mars similar to those of the Earth’s deep biosphere. If life cells on Earth could use electricity under such conditions, so might life cells on Mars.
On the Earth’s surface, many organisms generate electricity by transferring electricity between glucose and oxygen, and under the Earth they can use hydrogen and carbon dioxide, but in both cases the electrical energy is produced in the same way, with a charge balance between the two compatible compounds. After all, electricity is the energy obtained from a static or dynamic charge, but what is the charge? How does life work with electricity?
“Positive charge” and “negative charge” reflect the observable physical properties of the atoms involved in the electrical process, just as the “hot” and “cold” of the molecular temperature represent the molecular temperature, when the two are separated, they do not function properly, and when they come into contact, a bridge is formed between the two. The same is true of the positive and negative poles of the circuit, where the electrical difference between the two terminals is called voltage, and the current between them can be used efficiently, with older deepbiosphere bacteria using low-voltage circuits on Earth, while more complex surface organisms rely on high-voltage circuits, so we should expect to be able to find simpler, less advanced low-pressure microorganisms far from the surface of Mars, which is the main goal of our exploration.
Even the basic microbes that get electricity from the geological gases that penetrate the Martian crust may have a conservative metabolic circuit, because all known human organisms use the same mechanism to create energy for themselves. Scientists have found that all cells bridge the difference in charge that they eat and breathe through a biological silk called an electron transfer chain (ETC), and the universality of the electron transfer chain suggests that it is an early innovation in the evolution of life on Earth and the best solution to the current problem. Assuming that the origin of life on Mars is similar to that of life on Earth, we can expect to find more versions of the electron delivery chain on Mars, any of which will tell the story of two evolutionary pathways.
If the Earth and Mars ecosystems are essentially similar based on nucleic acids or amino acids, this may indicate that life on Mars is the origin of land, and that during the frequent asteroid collisions on Mars, it is likely that asteroids brought the seeds of life to Mars, a period that occurred about 3.8 billion years ago. But there is another hypothesis that its core mechanism is that all living cells survive in a conservative way of electrical energy metabolism, because that is the only way that can happen.
Although this may seem like evolutionary determinism, the idea that cells are confined to certain evolutionary pathways seems feasible, no matter what environment they are in. Of course, the core charge transfer reaction of the earth’s biological metabolism, more broadly known as “reductive/redox reaction”, can generate current even in the absence of organisms. Take the example of scientist Alexander Walter, who invented the original battery in the 18th century, whose core redox reaction spent still crucial to the ubiquitous modern battery, and since his discovery, biologists have found that similar redox reactions are based on metabolism. In addition to extracting electrical charges from metals, nature offers a variety of edible, breathable substances.
Thousands of meters underground, bacteria charge themselves by eating simple underground fuel.
All compounds from hydrogen to sulfate can be used as the end of the metabolic circuit, and although they have some flexibility, the similarity of electron transmission chains in many life forms in terms of structure and function indicates that there is only a small degree of freedom in the evolutionary course of biological systems. Annette Rowe, director of the Electronic Microbiology Laboratory at the University of Cincinnati, has studied the unusual ways in which the metabolic circuits of organisms drive energy. In a telephone interview, she focused on bacteria that carry respiratory currents through electrodes, noting in a telephone interview that while the two biometabolic systems may “have the same protein structure that appears to be the same, most of them are unique from an evolutionary perspective.” “This means that biological cells have historically been the same in their strategies for the distribution of electrical energy, and what substances are they going to solve?” Adenosine triphosphate.
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is an incredibly biological substance that is found all over the world. It is well known that all known cells use electrochemical gradients for biological function, but most cells do not come into direct contact with current, but instead transmit electrical energy to a mobile intermediate, ATP, in a similar way to wireless technology. Under this “wireless transmission mechanism”, the internal processes of the cell, such as active transport, polymerization, and remoteness from the region of the metabolic mechanism. Cells use diffuse ATP to provide the necessary stimulation, rather than relying on neural lines, as we know, ATP is the base currency of life, just as human money can be widely exchanged in society, and ATP can be easily exchanged within cells.
ATP is a high-energy spring molecule that wants to split more than any substance, and its explosive ability is used by proteins to perform mechanical processes, and atP, like an electron transfer chain, has evolved many times. The powerful nature of this evolutionary convergence implies that we will find ATO or similar intermediate matter in our extraterrestrial lives.
Living cells evolve in this way because this is the only way that can happen.
The next question is whether the patterns we observe on Earth, the electron transmission chains and their roles in the production of ATP, are the basis of all life or the basis of life as we know it. Finding an alternative system for real-time evolution on Earth is difficult, because primitive cells, even the slowest-growing competitors, will win over 3.8 billion years of evolution. There may be a rich population of pioneer species of life in our deep biosphere, but predatory behavior has prevented their development. Exploring at low-energy depths on Mars, where potential biological activity is slow, ancient structures of life may be found to fill the gap in our understanding of the earliest forms of life on both planets.
Exploring the origins of life beneath the surface of Mars is not a new idea, as 20th-century blogger Thomas Gould predicted that the deep underground biosphere is real. The prediction is 10 years before the actual discovery of the underground biosphere, and he believes that deep in the planet’s surface, the life forms that are powered by chemicals… It may be very common in the universe. New experimental models suggest that there are about 6 billion Earth-like planets in the Milky Way alone, suggesting that the low-pressure chemicals that sustain life in early Earth may be spreadacross throughout the universe. Gould’s theoretical views can be applied to the underground environment exploration of many celestial bodies, such as Mars.
Another suggestion made by Gould is that our definition of life may be limited by the constraints we experience. He believes that the known deep underground biosphere is usually a large area, which is too hot for what we know to be bacterial life, but it still supports other chemical processing systems that regulate these energy reactions. In other words, there may be other paradigms that extend our understanding of life itself.
Other scientists have the same idea, and while life is driven by electricity, as we know, any energy gradient could become the fuel of Mars. Rowe cautiously speculated that life happens to be produced by redox reactions, so people look for life on other planets when looking for them, but life may have other ways to get energy – thermal or magnetic processes – which at first seemed unfeasible for life, but who knows? From a cosmic perspective, it is difficult to rule out any possibility.
Still, it seems that most researchers are betting on Mars, believing that the red planet is likely to have signs of life. ‘We now know that the deep biosphere is very wide, so if there was life on Mars in the past, it’s reasonable to assume that there was a similar biosphere on Mars, ‘ David Flannery, a researcher at the Queensland University of Technology in Australia, said in a telephone interview. On Earth, it is likely that life will evolve from deep underground to the surface, and in the future our Mars rover will drill into the Martian crust to reveal the potential roots of the second tree of life.