Completing hpv vaccination doesn’t mean everything is going well. Regular post-vaccination screening is essential and requires regular check-ups at medical facilities, but many women of appropriate age are difficult to do, leaving a hidden problem. The NIH is leading the study of an easy-to-use approach that could help improve screening rates after HPV vaccination.
In a home environment, the sample brush is inserted by the age-appropriate woman herself, rotating a few turns, and collecting cells. The sample brush is then loaded into a sample container filled with a preservative solution, and the encapsulated test box is sent to the testing mechanism for HPV analysis. Such a scenario may occur in the daily life of many women of appropriate age who are not convenient enough to check regularly in medical institutions.
Vaccination is not a good thing.
Prevention-oriented, prevention and control combination, group prevention and group control is an effective policy of disease prevention and control, any link of omission, it is difficult to achieve the goal of eradicating preventable diseases. Cervical cancer, which is largely preventable, is no exception. Nearly 14,000 Americans will be diagnosed with preventable cervical cancer and will die more than 4,000 times this year, according to the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results/SEER Program.
Self-sampling in a home environment, can the results of the check-up be comparable to the clinician’s screening in the office? Proponents argue that this easy-to-use sampling and detection in a home environment could help further eradicate cervical cancer. NCI plans to launch a multi-site study next year involving about 5,000 women of school age to evaluate the effectiveness of self-sampling methods in a home environment.
Dr Vikrant Sahasrabuddhe, director of the NCI Cervical Cancer and Other Hpv-related Cancer Program (Photo: NCI Website)
Women who are outside health insurance coverage or do not have access to regular medical care are more likely to miss out on screeningthat that could save their lives, said Dr. Vikrant Sahasrabuddhe, director of the NCI Cervical Cancer and Other HPV-related Cancer Program program. These groups of women who do not have the qualifications to be screened regularly in a medical facility continue to have no reduction in the risk of cervical cancer each year, and the relevant indicators do not decrease. Just as stool samples were taken in a home environment to detect colon cancer, if these women could collect their own cells from the relevant sites at home for HPV testing, they could screen themselves in the home environment.
The study, led by NCI, could help quickly promote FDA-approved tests as part of the cervical cancer screening guidelines if it turns out to be effective in self-sampling in the home environment. Instead of waiting for companies that provide HPV testing services for clinicians to complete self-sampling studies in the home environment, Dr. Sahasrabuddhe believes that public-private partnerships (PPP) should be leveraged to develop public-private-sector research through federal agencies and established public-private sector collaborations with companies, academic institutions, and other institutions. NCI is expected to invest $6 million in the HPV home detection effects study, while overseeing the data and analysis of the study. If each company does its own experiment, it could take years, he says. The NCI therefore hopes to accelerate this process through public-private sector cooperation (PPP).
Countries that have promoted home environmental sampling, better prevention and control
The HPV test self-sampling method, which is one of several methods that cervical cancer research institutions across the United States want to promote, has been popularized in countries such as Australia and the Netherlands. Another key strategy is to vaccinate adolescents against HPV. As of 2018, nearly 54 percent of women under the age of 17 in the U.S. are vaccinated, compared with 49 percent of men, according to NAI. According to an analysis published in Lancet Public Health in 2019, cervical cancer is being phased out in Australia. Countries that have done better in reducing the prevalence of cervical cancer have emphasized HPV vaccination for adolescents.
Dr. Rachel Winer, Professor of Epidemiology at the University of Washington School of Public Science and Research for HPV Self-Sampling for a long time (Photo: University of Washington Website)
It is important to note that vaccination alone does not prevent all THE HPV virus subtypes that can cause cervical cancer. As a result, federal officials still recommend that women who receive vaccinations be regularly checked. However, it is sometimes not easy to persuade some women to insist on regular check-ups at the clinic.
For some people, the main problem is that they cannot afford to check. Most health insurance plans cover HPV screening with some public health plans, but women who are not covered by insurance coverage or who don’t know about the public health plan may be required to pay for a clinic check-up themthemselves. In addition, Dr. Rachel Winer, a professor of epidemiology at the University of Washington’s School of Public Studies who has long studied HPV home sampling, says some women can’t walk away at work; Some women have resistance or bad experiences with pelvic examinations. These factors all affect regular visits to the clinic.
The prevalence and mortality rate of cervical cancer per 100,000 female population seisheses in different parts of the world by age standardization (Photo: World Bank)
Reversing the trend towards lower screening rates
Federal data show that about four-fifths of women are regularly screened for cervical cancer, but screening rates have declined slightly since after peaking around 2000. But this self-reported figure, based on patients, may be more optimistic than it really is. An analysis of the medical records of 327,418 women between the ages of 30 and 65 in Minnesota, published last year in the Journal of Women’s Health, showed that screening rates had dropped to about 65 percent by 2016. Dr. Kathy Mac Laughlin, a researcher at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, and lead author of the paper, said the paper’s data more accurately reflect the current state of screening rates in the United States.
Dr MacLaughlin says one of the barriers to screening may be due to the complexity of the guidelines. Screening is spent more than a year apart, rather than being more appropriate for the annual check-up for the memory of many women of appropriate age. U.S. Preventive Services Working Group (U.S. The Prevention Services Task Force recommends that specific consideration of the age of working-age women help determine when cells are collected from the cervix, take a HPV test or a papsmear to screen for precancerous lesions. She says it’s difficult for every woman to remember to go to a medical facility every three years for a screening.
The key is to get the target group really involved.
Although ncI has not yet decided which exact lying method to use, the technique usually requires women to rotate the cells several times after inserting the sampling brush. The sample brush is then loaded into a sample container filled with a preservative solution and sent back to the test box for HPV analysis.
According to a review of the study, published in 2018 by BMJ Global Health, women were similarly accurate when they took samples from a home environment to detect HPV. Dr. Jennifer Smith, a professor of epidemiology at the Gillings School of Global Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, said a urine HPV test is being studied that may make it easier for women of appropriate age to accept.
Dr. Sahasrabuddhe said that while the results of home sampling may not be as accurate as those taken by clinicians, it is important to prove that women’s self-sampling is comparable to the HPV test sampled at the clinic before the company can request FDA approval for home testing. NCI officials are still finalizing the details of the study. The program involves four companies that have already produced HPV testing for clinicians. Dr. Sahasrabuddhe expects the results to be published in 2024. He said any woman who tested positive for HPV would be referred for further tests, including the need for a biopsy to look for abnormal or cancerous cells.
Dr. Smith said that if you develop home tests that can be approved by the FDA, the most important thing is how women of age who are not covered by Health Insurance, and those who have less access to health care, get them. Promoting home testing, not only will the detection package randomly sent to the user’s home, the key is to let the target population really participate, and be able to integrate the target population into the follow-up system.