“Replicated species” across the ages: Dolphins and dragons have the same evolutionary mechanism

Beijing time July 16 news, according tomedia reports, convergence refers to two or more of the close relatives of the creatures, because of living in the same type of environment, thus evolving into a similar morphological characteristics or structure of the phenomenon. Convergence evolution, in which organisms originating from different ancestors and even across different historical periods, change the overall or partial morphological structure in the same direction due to similar lifestyles. Some species have been able to “replicate” the evolution of Earth’s living things, and they have similar biological characteristics at different times.

Mutations occur randomly in the course of biological evolution, but natural selection is certainly not the case, and every new adaptive feature a species acquires may be accompanied by numerous failed experiments that can be said to determine which mutations are beneficial or unhelpful – to survive.

In Darwinian living organisms (involving all organisms), all possible beneficial mutations range very small, this is a physical, biological constraint and environmental pressure control space. Sometimes, due to differences in time and space, two unrelated species live in the same ecological niche or face similar evolutionary problems, and when this happens, converged evolution will essentially become a “replicated species” with limited solutions, and the following is an example of the famous “replicated species” in the history of biological evolution on Earth:

1, dolphins and dragon

German scientists used a good term to describe the common body features of different species, Bauplan, which translates to mean “body layout”, and they highly sum up a key factor in convergence evolution, namely the morphological similarity of kinshipless species, in other words, two different species have very similar appearances.

Dolphins and dragons share common traits, or at least similarities in their body structures, which are striking examples of two completely different animals – mammals and reptiles – who have the same evolutionary mechanisms, including live birth, warm blood, and even similar camouflage skills.

Modern sharks and dolphins are the same in some aspects of convergence evolution, such as streamlined size and triangular dorsal fins, but they also have many differences.

2, Crane and Jay’s Crown Dragon

In 2017, palaeontologists excavated an unusual dinosaur fossil in southern China, named Corythoraptor Jacobsi, dating back to the late Cretaceous period, a two-legged worm dinosaur that is very similar to the crane, commonly known as a turkey-eating bird, in Queensland, Australia.

In addition to similar size, both animals have delicate crown-like structures on their heads, known as “helmet-like bulges”, which act as a magnet for mates.

3, canines and Tasmanian tigers

The Tasmanian tiger, also known as the kangaroo, is a modern extinct animal, its appearance is quite similar to that of modern canines, modern canines are carnivorous animals, including: wolves, foxes and domestic dogs. But the kangaroo is a large bag-type predator that packs the cubs in nursery bags similar to kangaroos and kangaroos.

Incredibly, the last common ancestor of placental canines and kangaroos lived during the Jurassic period 160 million years ago, and despite the huge evolutionary differences, the skulls and sizes of Tasmanian tigers and canines are very similar. According to a paper published in the 2017 journal Nature, the appearance of Tasmanian tigers and canines is considered to be the most significant example of mammalian convergence evolution.

4, piranfish and Piranhamesodon pinnatomus

In the late Jurassic period, 150 million years ago, it lived a fish that resembled modern piranus, threatening the marine life of what is now southern Germany, and its name is Piranhamedon Pinnatomus, the oldest known carnivorous fin-sillefish, which includes trout, grouper and cod, but does not include modern cannibals.

Piranhamedon Pinnatomus has sharp teeth like piranha, which can be used to bite the fins of other fish, especially other fish, says David Bellwood, a paleontologist at James Cook University who is similar to modern piranha, which feeds mainly on the fins of other fish, rather than meat, which are smart because they regenerate and are a clean, renewable resource. The death of a prey no longer exists, and regular lying on its fins continues to have food.

5. Small ancient humans

Paleontological evidence suggests that humans are unimmune to the effects of convergence evolution, and That homothed is the last surviving human species, but there are other human species in the history of human evolution, such as Neanderthals, Denisovas, Homo erectus, and Naledi.

In 2004, scientists found evidence of the existence of an ancient human on Flores Island, a smaller body known as the Homo Flores, commonly known as the Hobbit, which is now extinct. They are no more than 1.09 meters tall, and in 2019 scientists found evidence of a second smaller ancient human in the Philippines, known as Homo luzonensis.

These ancient humans lived at the same time about 50,000 years ago, but were not close to each other. Their striking resemblance lies in the evolution of an island dwarfism known as island dwarfism, in which island species become smaller over time due to limited resources. It turns out that this island dwarfism phenomenon is no coincidence, and there are various types of dwarf species on these two ancient human-living islands.

6, six-fingered lemurs and giant pandas

A 2019 study showed that lemurs have a sixth finger, or, in scientists’ words, “subsidiary fingers.” At the same time, the giant panda has a similar feature, its limbs have five toes above a redundant toe, moles and some extinct reptiles also exist, they use the sixth toe to dig the soil. Like giant pandas, the six-fingered lemur uses its index finger to enhance grip, a classic example of convergent evolution.

Surprisingly, the side toes of giant pandas and six-fingered lemurs are the result of accidental evolution, both of which have evolved into highly specialized limbs that are not suitable for climbing, leading to evolutionary pressure to produce a sixth toe.

7, bats and long-arm edions

Bats, moles, and extinct pterosaurs have membrane-like wings fixed by a special bone called a column, a convergence of behaviors, but pterosaurs also use this strategy, and their wings are formed with extra-long fingers. The phenomenon was discovered in 2019, a small Jurassic dinosaur with membrane-like wings.

There is incredible diversity in evolution, but at the same time extremely limited, and all species must respect basic physics and unassailable biological limits. At the same time, evolutionary biologists believe that evolution often drives animals to common “peaks of adaptation.”

8, “Platpe” dinosaur

The platypus is a unique animal-footed dinosaur, whose name is Chilesaurus Diegosuarezi, the dinosaur fossil was first discovered in 2015 and is known as the “platypus” of dinosaurs due to its patchwork anatomical features. The species is a typical example of the convergence evolution of the chimeric, in which the characteristics of several unrelated species are brought together to create an animal similar to a platypus. The platypus has the strong forelimbs of the istro, and its pelvis resembles the bird’s hip dinosaurs, such as the sword dragon and the horned dragon, as well as its teeth, skulls and other dinosaur facial features. (Leaf Town)