A spectacular three-dimensional map of the universe has revealed one of the largest cosmic structures ever discovered, the “Antarctic Wall”, spanning 1.4 billion light-years and containing tens of thousands of galaxies. The “Antarctic Wall” is incredible, as it is named, and it has been hidden in the sight of people, until recently it was confirmed that most of it is located 500 million light-years behind the Milky Way. The Antarctic wall is the size of the Sloan Great Wall, the sixth largest cosmic structure ever discovered.
Astronomers have long noted that galaxies are not randomly scattered throughout the universe, but are clustered in the form of cosmic networks. In this huge hydrogen chain, the galaxy is like a pearl on a necklace, surrounded by a huge, empty space.
“Drawing these galaxy lines is part of the field of cosmic cartography, which is cosmographics,” said Daniel Pomarad, a cosmologist at the University of Saclay in Paris, France. “
Previous cosmic surveys have mapped other galaxy sets, such as the current largest cosmic structure, the Hercules-Northern Coronation Wall, which spans 10 billion light-years, more than one-tenth of the visible universe.
In 2014, Pomared and colleagues unveiled the Raniakaia Supercluster, a cluster of galaxies containing the Milky Way galaxy, 520 million light-years in diameter and 1 billion times the mass of the sun.
In the latest map of the Antarctic Wall, the team used the latest space survey to observe an area called the “Fuzzy Zone of the Milky Way”, which lies to the south of the sky, where bright light blocks most of the structure of the South Pole wall behind it.
Astrologers usually use redshifts to determine the distance of celestial bodies, which are the speed at which celestial bodies move away from Earth as the universe expands. The redshift depends on their distance, and the farther away an object is, the faster it will appear to be away from Earth, a discovery first discovered by astronomer Edwin Hubble in 1929.
Currently, Pomared and his colleagues used a slightly different technique to observe the dynamic velocity of galaxies, including redshifts, but also taking into account the movement of galaxies around each other because they pull each other under gravitational forces.
The advantage of this approach is the ability to detect hidden masses that affect the motion of galaxies, thus helping to reveal the true veil of dark matter, which is invisible that is not luminescent but produces gravity on any object close enough, and which scientists now speculate that constitute most of the mass of the universe. By running algorithms to observe the specific movements in the galaxy, the team was able to map the fuzzy region of the Milky Way and the three-dimensional distribution of matter around it, the latest study published July 9 in the Astrophysical Journal.
The final map presents an incredible physical bubble, located at the southernmost tip of the sky, with a huge long wing extending north, facing the whale constellation on one side and the other facing the constellation Yan.
Understanding the current celestial models that are so large across the range is not easy, but it is difficult to determine the exact start and end point of these huge, crisscrossing cosmic structures. When you look at the networks of dark filaments and voids in the universe, you realize what the connection is with them.
In the study, the team acknowledged that they may not have yet mapped the complete Antarctic wall, noting that we are not sure of its full extent or whether it is unusual, and that in the future we will be able to map the Antarctic wall based on larger scale criteria.