BEIJING, July 21 (Xinhua) — According tomedia reports, supernovae is the most powerful supernova explosion in the universe, 10 to 100 times brighter than a typical supernova. This energy is enough to completely destroy our sun 100,000 times, or enough to supply our world’s total energy consumption for the next 100 billion years.
However, while the power of supernovae is unquestionable, they are also extremely rare, with astronomers observing only a few dozen examples in cosmic surveys completed over the past few decades. Few people know about the existence of supernovae, and even astronomers have a hard time classifying them: they are sometimes referred to as “supernovae” and sometimes as “super-bright supernovae” and sometimes as subclasses of conventional supernovae. Because of the limited information, astronomers can’t even understand how they formed and what makes their energy so great.
Here are some of the supernovae formations that astronomers believe are supposed to form.
When large-mass stars die, they often disappear with violent explosions. In the last few minutes of their lives, dense iron and nickel nuclei form. Unlike lighter elements, iron fusion consumes energy rather than releases it. With no energy to support the overwhelming weight of the star’s own atmosphere, the star collapses catastrophically.
However, in the final moments of the star’s life, it was flattened into a ball almost entirely made of neutrons, briefly halting the collapse and triggering a huge rebound, followed by a spectacular explosion, the supernova explosion.
Sometimes the remaining cores will remain and, like neutron stars, transition to a quiet, eternal retirement. But when the mass of a star is 40 times or more than that of the sun, the dense sphere, made up of neutrons, cannot resist the huge squeeze of gravity, not even a chance of resistance. Other times, for smaller stars, if the conditions are right, there will be enough material to collapse into a newborn neutron star after the initial explosion.
In the latter two cases, neutron stars fold themselves, and nothing can stop gravity from doing what it does best: make objects smaller. Then the ultimate source of unstoppable gravity emerged: a black hole was born.
If the star rotates rapidly, the power and magnetism will become more violent as countless tons of material rotate and flow into the new black hole, creating the right conditions for the emission of material to flow. The matter is ejected from the black hole at a speed close to the speed of light. These jets then collide violently with all the projectiles that were originally exploded, rekindling them in a violent explosion, forming some of the supernova we see in the sky.
Extreme supernovae and gamma rays.
Although the black hole model can explain some of the behavior of supernovae, it does not explain all phenomena. Another potential source of these huge explosions may be the core of the star itself.
Inside the core of a giant star, elements fuse and release energy in the form of radiation. This radiation propels the surrounding gas and propities it from gravitational collapse. All this is perfect, allowing stars to last millions or even billions of years. But do you know how electrons combine with its antiparticles, or positrons, and release pure energy? This is a high-energy radiation, in the form of gamma rays. In fact, this process can easily happen: if there is a beam of high-energy gamma rays, one day it can spontaneously become a pair of particles, i.e. an electron and a positron.
Thus, in the “melting pot” of a star’s core, the “pair generation” of these particles has been occurring. Electrons and positrons will soon find each other and become radiation again, keeping the star in balance. However, if the loop loses its balance, even a little, too many pairs of particles will be formed. If this happens, the star will not be able to sustain it until the particles become gamma rays again.
In a flash, a star dozens of times larger than the sun collapsed, releasing much more energy than normal in a supernova explosion, causing a supernova explosion.
Adjacent stars erupt.
Sometimes stars die on their own, as in the above-mentioned cases. But sometimes, stars die under the watchful eye of “friends” and things get very bad. When a pair of stars burst and leave a neutron star, its star “brothers” are also excited, and a violent eruption occurs.
In other cases, if conditions are right, an erupting star dumps enough material into its neutron star neighbor to trigger an out-of-control nuclear reaction. This is the same process that excites the I.a supernova, except that the scale is magnified. In other words, this is the supernova.
Astronomers aren’t sure which mechanism is most common, but whatever way nature creates these spectacular events, it will be one of the most fascinating topics in astronomy. (Any day)