Recently, the United Arab Emirates launched its first Mars rover, Hope, to open the new century Mars exploration curtain. Mars is the solar system’s most similar and closest to Earth, making it the most studied planet in human life outside of Earth, and the history of human space probes on Mars has spanned almost the entire history of human spaceflight.
A map of the size of Earth (left) and Mars (right). Copyright/NASA.
Three stages of development.
Human mars exploration began in the 1960s, and by the end of June this year, 44 fire missions had been carried out worldwide, 21 in the United States, 19 in Russia, 1 in Japan, 2 in Europe and 1 in India. Full or partial success 23 times, the success rate is about 53%. 19 completely successful, with a success rate of about 43%. Therefore, the exploration of Mars is very difficult, the main reason is that Mars is far from The Earth, the environment is complex.
So far, there have been eight successful missions to Mars:
Pirates 1, 2, Mars Pathfinder, Opportunity, Courage, Phoenix, Curiosity, Insight.
There are six orbiters currently in operation: Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, Europe’s Mars Express and Trace Gas Orbiter, India’s Mangarian
There are two landing rovers in operation: Curiosity and Insight.
U.S. Pirate-2 landing map on Mars. Copyright/NASA.
In general, global Mars exploration has gone through three stages of development.
The first phase, from 1960 to 1975, was the first wave of fire detection, with 23 launches.
In the second phase, 1976-1990, Mars exploration entered a low ebb, with only the Soviet Union launching two Mars probes, all of which failed.
The second wave of fire detection in the 1990s to the present stage was 19 launches. The main purpose of the fire detection is for scientific and engineering purposes, especially the United States implemented a huge “Mars Life Program”, launched a number of new Mars rover, the achievements. The European Space Agency and India also successfully explored Mars, breaking the US-Soviet monopoly on Mars exploration.
Test the Insight Mars lander. Copyright/NASA.
Early Us-Soviet competition.
From 1960 to 1975, Soviet-American exploration in the field of Mars carried out a fierce competition, the result of the United States high-tech, fire detection success rate is significantly higher than the Soviet Union.
During this time, the Soviet Union launched a number of “Mars” series of probes, but most of them failed. The Mars-3 lander made a soft landing on the surface of Mars, and although it sent a 20-second television signal, it was the first rover to reach the surface of Mars; Mars-5 was the first Soviet rover to enter orbit on Mars and send back pictures of Mars; and Mars-6 made observations of the Martian atmosphere during the landing process, sending back parameters of the Martian atmosphere.
In 1976-1990, the global Mars exploration period entered a low tide, only in 1988, the Soviet Union launched the Phobos-1, 2 probe, but still did not escape the fate of failure, failed to transmit back scientific data.
The Soviet Mars-3 lander landed on the surface of Mars in 1971, but lost contact with Earth for unknown reasons after only 20s. Copyright/wikipedia.
By comparison, the U.S. Mars exploration activity was much better at the same time. The United States launched several “Mariner” probes to Mars, four of which were successful, notably The Mariner-4 passing about 10,000 kilometers from Mars, the first image of the surface of Mars, the first from another planet besides Earth, which sent back 21 close-range images of Mars, detecting less than 1 percent of the Earth’s atmosphere; And for later pirates -1, 2 landing on Mars to explore the location was selected.
In 1975, the United States launched the Pirate-1, 2 probe, the world’s first to complete a single launch around detection and landing exploration of two modes of exploration of the Mars probe. The orbital module observed the Martian space environment, the Martian surface, and Phobos 1 and Phobos 2, and the lander analyzed martian soil, measured wind speed, air pressure and temperature, and determined the atmospheric composition of Mars. The “pirates” soft landing on Mars laid the groundwork for a later Mars landing.
The first digital image of Mars taken by Mariner-4 (hand-painted) Copyright/NASA.
U.S. Mariner-4 Mars Rover Copyright/NASA.
The United States is currently ahead.
After 1990, global Mars exploration activities warmed up, and the United States, after 17 years, pioneered the launch of the Mars Observer probe in 1992. However, it is out of touch with Earth on its way to Mars.
After four years of technological improvements, the United States began the massive Mars Life Program in 1996, the search for life on Mars. During the year, the United States successfully launched the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder probe to determine whether there is life on Mars.
A map of the work of the “Mars Global Explorer” in orbit. Copyright/NASA.
The resolution of the Mars Global Surveyor has improved considerably over the “Pirates” orbital module imaging system, giving scientists a deeper understanding of the evolutionary history of the Martian surface.
The Mars Pathfinder, consisting of a lander and a Mars rover, created several firsts using a novel air bag landing method: the first to land the planet and the first to land by parachute at a supersonic flight of 1,600 km/h;
However, the Mars Polar Lander and the Mars Climate Orbiter, launched by the United States in 1998 and 1999 respectively, have both suffered failures.
Undeterred, the U.S. successfully launched the Mars Odyssey in 2001, the first time water ice was found beneath the surface of Mars, signaling the possibility of life on Mars. The detector is still in operation.
The U.S. Mars rover since then has also been successful.
It’s like a geologist’s Courage rover preparing to probe a stone (illustrated). Copyright/NASA.
In 2003, the United States launched a second-generation Mars rover, Courage and Opportunity. Not only did the twins go beyond service, but it was the equivalent of a geologist standing on Mars to get a better understanding of The Suss and confirm that there was water on Mars.
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which entered orbit in 2005, is the most advanced and largest Mars orbiter in the world today. It has a resolution six times that of other systems before, with a resolution of 0.3 metres at 200 km/h and 0.6 m at 400 km/h. High-resolution observations are beneficial for the study of stratified substances, impact ditches, river channels, etc., and are used to determine landing and sampling areas. In addition to being used to observe Mars from low orbit and taking a large number of high-definition images of Mars, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter also selects and relays data for mars landers.
In 2007, the U.S. “Phoenix” Mars lander lifted off. It was the first rover to land in the Martian Arctic and was important to understand the history of the Martian climate. Its mission, which lasted about three months, used stretching robots to dig up soil on Mars to see if the local environment was suitable for living.
Launched in 2011, the U.S. Mars Science Laboratory carries curiosity, a third-generation Mars rover. It is twice the length of the second-generation Mars rover, four times the mass of the second-generation Mars rover, and carries a scientific instrument mass of 15 times that of the second-generation Mars rover. It is the first to use nuclear power technology in the Mars rover, which avoids the risk of solar cell formations being covered by Martian dust affecting power generation efficiency, greatly improving the rover’s travel, service life and working time on the surface of Mars.
In 2013, the United States “Mars atmosphere and volatile evolution” into orbit. It is the world’s first probe to study the upper atmosphere on Mars, designed to investigate the upper atmosphere on Mars and help understand the impact of the escape of Martian atmospheric gas into space on the evolution of the Martian climate.
In 2018, The U.S. is on a safe landing on Mars. It is used to make a “CT” for Mars, to detect the scale, frequency and geographical distribution of seismic activity within The Earth and the frequency of meteorite impacts on the surface of Mars, to determine the thermal state of the Martian interior, the composition and structure of the Martian mantle, the thickness and structure of the Martian crust, and the size, composition and physical state of the Martian core.
On January 19, 2016, Curiosity took this selfie at Namib Dunes, which was followed by a wheel turning through the sand layer and collecting sand samples for laboratory analysis. Copyright/NASA.
Other rising star.
Since 1998, Japan, Europe and India have also begun to develop and launch their own Mars probes, breaking the U.S.-Soviet monopoly on Mars exploration.
In 1998, Japan launched its first Mars rover, Hope, but failed to enter Mars orbit because of a propulsion failure.
In 2003, Europe’s first Mars rover, Mars Express, was launched, becoming the fourth country or organization in the world to launch a deep space probe after the Soviet Union, the United States and Japan. It consists of orbiters and landers, which enter Mars orbit and obtain more data than expected, including the water stocks used to detect the disease with radar, and are still in service beyond their current schedule. It is also used to provide information relay services for Mars landers. But its lander, the British hound-2, lost contact with Earth during its landing on Mars. The Mars Express orbiter is still out of service.
A map of Europe’s first Mars rover, Mars Express, is in orbit. Copyright/NASA.
In 2016, the Mars Biology-2016 probe, developed by the European Space Agency in cooperation with Russia, was in orbit. It consists of a “microgas orbiter” and a “Schiaparelli” lander. Among them, the “micro-gas orbiter” successfully entered the orbit of Mars, mainly used to detect trace gases in the Martian atmosphere, but the “Schiaparelli” lander was not successful in the mars surface landing test.
The European Mars Biology-2016 probe is releasing a map of the Schiaparelli lander. Copyright/ESA.
In 1996, Russia launched the Mars-96 probe due to rocket failure and “arrow destroyer”. In 2011, Russia launched another “Fire-Soil” probe, which, although not a problem, failed, preventing the probe from entering the Earth’s orbit and eventually burning into the Earth’s atmosphere.
India has long wanted to compete for the first place in the Asian space industry. In 2013, India’s first Mars rover, Mangarian, lifted off. It successfully entered Mars orbit in 2014 and sent back photos of the mars, making it the fourth country or organization in the world after the Soviet Union, the United States and Europe to successfully explore Mars and the first in Asia to successfully explore Mars.
A map of India’s “Mangalian” entering mars orbit. Copyright/wikipedia.