Beijing time, July 22, according tomedia reports, in February 2017, NASA announced that the adjacent Earth TRAPPIST-1 star system has no less than 7 rocky planets! Since then, astronomers have made various follow-up observations and studies in the hope of learning more about these exoplanets, and they have been trying to understand whether planets in the star’s habitable zone are fit to survive.
Many previous studies have focused on whether there is enough water on the surface of the planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system, but the equally important question is whether they have an atmosphere, and in a recent study, a team reviewed all the planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system so far, noting that planets in the star system have an atmosphere based on previous observations.
Most planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system have a cloudless atmosphere with a low molecular weight atmosphere, similar to Earth’s primitive atmosphere.
The study, published in the recently published Journal of Astrophysics, is the conclusion of an international team of researchers from the Geneva Observatory (GAO), the University of Bern, the Bordeaux Astrophysics Laboratory (LAB), the Institute of Astrophysics at Imperial College London, and the University of Colorado’s Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP).
Initially, an astronomy team from the University of Liege in Belgium used the hyperthesus to detect three exoplanets in the TRAPPIST-1 system, and based on this method, astronomers monitored changes in the luminosity of the TRAPPIST-1 star, which is the result of the planet passing over the front of the star (relative to the observer’s angle).
The star system, named TRAPPIST-1, commemorates the astronomical instrument spent exploring these objects, the Lingsun Planet and Star Small Telescope Array (TRAPPIST) at the La Silla Observatory in Chile and the De’Ouka?meden Observatory in Morocco. In February 2017, scientists confirmed the existence of four exoplanets.
Since then, the TRAPPIST-1 system has been seen by astronomers as the best candidate for exoplanet research for many reasons, says Martin Turbet, a postdoctoral researcher at the Geneva Observatory, that the TRAPPIST-1 system is ideal for life habitability because it is a planetary system made up of habitable exoplanets and is easy to observe, so astronomers can observe it using telescopes. TRAPPIST-1 is only 39 light-years from Earth, and we have often observed the presence of a sun in the planetary system, and it has now been confirmed that TRAPPIST-1 is a very small ultra-cold dwarf.
In short, there are seven exoplanets around the star, which means we have many opportunities to observe the solar eclipse of the system. In that case, as the light released by a star orbits the planet and passes through its atmosphere, astronomers are able to collect the planet’s spectrum (a process known as transmission spectrum) and then scientists can examine the data to determine which chemical elements exist.
Since TRAPPIST-1 is an M-type red dwarf with a lower mass and lower temperature, and dim relative to other types of stars, the transmission spectrum obtained from the planets in the system is unlikely to match the “Lingsun Light Source Effect (TLSE, or star pollution”).
However, not all studies so far have been encouraging, and in fact, several studies have shown that for some TRAPPIST-1 system planets, water may make up a large part of their mass (making them “water world”). In addition, TRAPPIST-1 is prone to flares based on the properties of red dwarfs, which can wreak havoc on their planet’s atmosphere.
A team of researchers reviewing all of the trappist-1 system planets viewed so far, noting that, based on previous observations, planets in the star system have an atmosphere.
Some studies have shown that exoplanets orbiting red dwarfs are still suitable for life, as long as they have adequate atmospheric and cloud cover to cope with radiation, and to assess the likelihood that the TRAPPIST-1 planet has such an atmosphere, Turbert and colleagues analyzed all the data observed so far in the TRAPPIST-1 system.
This information includes: solar observations of the planets in the system, planetary density measurements, transmission spectral analysis, system irradiation environment, theory of planetary formation and migration, planetary orbital stability, climate models, and model analysis of how much gas the planets lose in space.
“We reviewed all the research on the topic, from the best telescopes available (Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, Fart Telescope, etc.) to the most complex theoretical models, such as 3D numerical climate models,” Turbert said. “
Ultimately, their findings are very exciting, first, that they can determine that most of the planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system have no clouds and have a low molecular weight atmosphere, similar to Earth’s primitive atmosphere; We also believe that if the atmosphere of the TRAPPIST-1 planet exists, it would most likely be carbon dioxide, oxygen or water. “
In other words, among the seven TRAPPIST-1 planets, there is a high probability of life on those planets that have an atmosphere, which means that carbon dioxide is an essential climate stabilizer that is necessary for organisms to photosynthesis, to produce volatile elements such as oxygen, nitrogen and water. It also includes cloud cover, which is not only a sign of water presence, but also provides protection against stellar radiation.
Unfortunately, however, Turbert and his colleagues were unable to conclude that the trappist-1 planet’s atmosphere contained all the liveable elements of life, but based on our current knowledge of the system, it was not possible to accurately judge the habitability of these planets. Finally, to find out if the exoplanets in this system are habitable, a new generation of telescope survey data is needed to confirm it.
“The new generation of space missions, the James Webb Space Telescope and the Near-Infrared Land-based Spectrometer, will be able to detect heavier molecules, such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, methane, etc., so it is possible for these detectors to survey the existence of an atmosphere in the TRAPPIST-1 system, and if so, what are the constituent elements of their atmosphere?” said Turbert. “
Currently, the James Webb Space Telescope is scheduled to launch in 2021, while the near-infrared land-based spectrometer is expected to be assembled within 10 years. Based on these powerful probes of the future, astronomers are expected to finally reveal the existence of extraterrestrial life in the Milky Way!