Many people have eaten cucumbers, and may have seen growing cucumbers and their stems. So, have you ever noticed the cucumber’s whiskers? Did you know that in order to promote the healthy growth of cucumbers, rolls are often removed by farmers? Would you be curious about the reason why cucumber saves and the plant growth code behind it? Scientists are curious about these questions and are thinking about how the answer to this question could bring greater agricultural benefits to humans.
Photo credit: pixabay.
Recently, Nature-Plant published online the results of cooperation between the Institute of Vegetables and Flowers of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the Institute of Agricultural Genomics of Shenzhen, the Institute of Biophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the University of California, Davis.
They found that cucumber reeling gene TEN is a new multi-functional transcription factor that binds to the enhancer inside the gene and uses lysine in the gine region of the histone syron region by acetylation to open the chromatin and activate the target gene.
How can this result benefit humanity? We begin with a doubt in Darwin.
Xishuangbanna no-roll cucumber’s leaf, perverted side branch in the normal volume of the growth position to replace the normal reel. Yang Xueyong for the map.
Darwin’s volume asks.
In the facility production, cucumber cultivation needs to grow the hanging vines, do not need the ability of cucumber curls to climb.
At the same time, the growth of the coil as a nutritional organ competes for a large number of reproductive organs, that is, cucumber growth needs nutrients.
Huang Sanwen, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, told the China Science Daily that the production needs to be removed in a timely manner to promote the healthy growth of cucumbers and ensure yields.
The manual removal of the volume will be time-consuming and labor-time- . Therefore, cultivating the non-roll-free varieties suitable for light and simplified cultivation will become an important direction for the improvement of cucumber plants.
In 2010, Huang Sanwen’s team began searching genomics for answers to this practical production question, only to accidentally answer a fundamental biology question that plagued Darwin more than a hundred years ago.
In 1875, Darwin asked in his book The Movement and Habits of Climbing Plants: “What is the congenial organ of the gourd plant’s curls?” “
This is because the scientists found that the same organ of the pea (bean) curly whisker is the leaf, the grape (vine) cosage is the congener of the grape (vine) whisker is the same organ of the flower sequence, and the same method does not prove what the homoth represents the co-source organ of the plant cucumber whisker.
Yang Xueyong, the first author of the paper and a researcher at the Institute of Vegetable and Flower Research of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, told the China Science Daily that by identifying 3,342 cucumber seeds worldwide, the team found the only Xishuangbanna no-roll cucumber.
At its leaf, the position of the curls, which should have grown, is a perverted side branch, replacing the normal curling whisker, and the end of the side branch retains the characteristicof of curling.
The researchers cloned the gene TEN, which controls the volume, which encodes a CYC/TB1 type of transcription factor that is at the heart of plant regulation.
The study successfully answered Darwin’s question about the hoist’s co-sourced organ, which is a side branch.
A new multi-functional transcription factor.
“So we wanted to know how TEN regulated the formation of cucumber rolls.” ‘Down this road, they found two other wonders about cucumber rolls, ‘ Mr. Huang said.
Transcription factor is a class of protein molecules that perform the function of initiating the expression of specific genes in the genome.
Scientists have learned the mechanism by which transcription factors regulate transcription on a near-end promoter or far-end enhancer of a gene.
“But recent studies have found that transcription factors of the CYC/TB1 class bind to the inside of certain genes to activate downstream targets.” Zhu Health, a researcher at the Shanghai Plant Adversity Biology Research Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said.
Yang Xueyong said that through comprehensive analysis of genomics, transcriptology, biochemistry and so on, they identified more than 1,700 transcription factor binding sites in the whole genome of THE cucumber, and found that these binding sites are mainly located inside the gene.
The researchers identified 474 direct target genes that WEREns were bound within the gene through the C-side, primarily involved in biological processes such as bud development and ethylene synthesis signals.
The regulatory dots inside these genes are a new class of gene internal enhanceers.
Through the analysis, the Huang Tri-trien team proved that the N-end domain of THE transcription factor encoded by TEN is a new type of histone acetyl transferase, the main acetylation modified histone globulin region of H3, to maintain the open chromatin, thus activating the target gene expression.
“This study, through this particular ‘lens’ of cucumber rolls, provides new insights into the underlying scientific question of how transcription factors bound to the gene regulate gene expression, and is an important breakthrough in the field of developmental biology and gene expression regulation.” Zhu said.
Guess: A conservative regulatory mechanism.
Huang Sanwen believes that the two special features of THE TEN transcription factor may make it more efficient.
Since the histone globulin regions of eyrebiotics are relatively conservative and very similar, this prompts researchers to wonder: Does this versatility of TEN exist in other organisms? The researchers first validated the tb1 gene in corn with the same molecular mechanism to regulate the expression of downstream target genes.
To test this new mechanism in animals, they looked at literature on enhancers binding transcription factors in the most studied humans.
Although similar dual-functional transcription factors have not yet been found in the human body, they found that when the transcription factor binding site is on the gene’s internal enhancer, the globule region of histones has a high degree of acetylation.
“Molecular processes, while not yet known, do have this correlation.” Yang Xueyong said.
The researchers speculate that in eyretics, histone globulin region acetylation may be a conservative mechanism for gene internal enhancer expression regulation.
Huang Sanyun’s team plans to use cucumbers as an experimental system to crack down on basic biological problems such as precise regulation, gender decision, and volume formation of plant secondary metabolic clusters.
At the same time, they will try to answer the initial question.
“Hopefully, this study will be used to develop new varieties of cucumbers that have no whiskers, are more productive, and are less cultivated.” Huang sanwen said.