As a CS undergraduate student, Linux has been in my work and study life for six years. In this article I will simply write down my linux-related experiences and gains over the past six years, and hope this article will help some of my budding Linux partners. I’ll go into detail about what’s cheap for me personally, and what I feel and gain from their baptism.
They are (in alphabetical order) as follows:
I’m only going to talk about the releases that I’ve been using as a desktop operating system for a long time, and not the releases I’ve used on servers, such as RHEL, CentOS, and so on. There’s an out-of-line guy in this form, FreeBSD, which isn’t a Linux distribution, it’s a Unix class. The reason I want to write it will be explained later.
Note: This article is long, if you have limited time, you can turn directly to the end of the article, I will have a summary of the fragment.
The Beginning of Everything – First Knowledge Linux
Strangely enough, I have a vivid memory of my first encounter with Linux usage. The Linux version I first installed was a familiar local ized distribution of China – deepin, perhaps the amazing feeling it gave me at the time, which I still remember. At that time, I was an ordinary high school student, when the main development work was to use C for some robot hardware programming. By chance, I saw the deepin’s promotional document and downloaded deepin 2013 for the installation experience. At that time, the performance of my device now seems very weak:
Pentium Platform Voltage U
Forget the specific size of the HDD piece
Integrated graphics cards
Obviously, since the DDE was just around the time, optimization and response can only be called qualified (more likely my device is too weak, but in fact also reflectthe performance of the home computer at that time), so the long-term experience can be said to be a bit bad. Although the novelty and deepin chic design did attract me, after a brief period of use, I chose to uninstall it and install it back to Windows 7. But I’m not far from Linux, and I learned two things for the first time in my short half-month/january usage time:
Not all operating systems are closed-source (yes, Windows).
The original desktop environment is not rigid before the same, but also can be fancy.
Although I haven’t used deepin since, I’m grateful for bringing me into the Linux world. The deepin is now very good, will be a good choice for Chinese users.
First to university – Start learning and using Linux
After ifirstsay about Linux, I didn’t have much of a chance to use my computer because of the college entrance exam, and I didn’t have any thing to say. Until my first course in college, C Language Program Design (which was my best undergraduate course, debuted at the peak), the only attraction of The C language class to me was to listen to my teacher blow water (escape) because I had been engaged in the shallow development of the C language for two years. In a mission shortly after the teacher’s class began, I quietly used Emacs, and I learned LaTex a little morbidly (all the documents I needed to submit at the time were doc). One of the questions, then, is how to get the best Emacs and LaTex experiences, and the answer is naturally to use it in GNU/Linux.
I wasn’t an experienced user at the time, and I chose to use Ubuntu Kylin 16.04 LTS – another local Linux distribution in China (which is actually a part of the school’s teacher’s choice, and I’m not sure I’m affected by that). The ubuntu Kylin, whose name is obvious, is a Ubuntu Base release that provides some settings that are more appropriate for Chinese by default. I installed Emacs and texlive-base on it, and it was a great experience. At the time, my device was still weak, and it was a Dell Chromebook 11:
Celeron Platform Low Pressure U
Integrated graphics cards
The machine brought me so much, and I learned about the use of the Linux C/C?tool chain with Ubuntu Kylin, and I started the Life of Emacs. And the minimal storage that the machine itself can’t expand and the large amount of default Chinese software that Ubuntu Kylin provides (like WPS Office) has taught me how to manage Linux and plan my own storage, and I have to say I think it’s a good start.
With a Long-term support version installed, ubuntu Kylin does a pretty good job on my machine, and I think it’s a good choice for shallow computer users and Chinese Linux beginners, rich and stable, and the right Chinese localization. I then installed the Ubuntu Kylin 16.04 LTS on an old computer my parents used, and still seems to be working well.
I also learned something with Ubuntu Kylin, learning how to manage and configure Debian systems, learning about the culture of some open source community, getting started with git, learning shell programming and python. I wrote my first script and crawler on Ubuntu Kylin. My review of Ubuntu Kylin is: Linux Chinese a great choice for users, it works well on a normal lying machine, with a large selection of software from the Ubuntu software repository. You can choose to use the deb package to install software that is not included in the official repository.
The Practice of New Ideas – Strategic Radical Linux Choices
After nearly a year of Ubuntu Kylin usage, I faced a problem with software-stabilized distributions like Ubuntu Kylin LTS that didn’t meet some of my needs, and I wanted to try some of the latest software and the latest kernel features. Several of the requirements that represent edith are Emacs 25 (when the official repository was only v24.3, and I didn’t compile it manually) and the BBR TCP congestion control algorithm (which was provided by Kernel v4.9 plus, and I didn’t replace the kernel at the time). At this point I needed a more aggressive Linux distribution to update the strategy, and I learned that Linus was using Fedora on a daily basis, so i installed Fedora 24 in a firestorm. Fedora is a more updated (semi-annual lying) release, and you can expect new features to be experienced on Fedora. And Fedora is a small distribution that provides support for multiple desktop environments (DE) default configurations, and unlike KUbuntu, LUbuntu, and so on, you can find installation images of different DeEs maintained by all Fedora communities in Fedora Skin.
At this point, I moved from Unity desktop to kDE, and I still think kDE5 is the most mature ornate desktop environment, and it’s strange that there aren’t many people using KDE in the country, and it seems like it’s not easy enough (I don’t know where it’s not easy). Fedora uses rpm package management software to handle dependencies with dnf, which is probably the third best-used package management engine, and he uses the second best-used zypper’s back-end libslov to improve the efficiency of reliance computing. If you’ve ever used yum, you’ll find that Fedora works well as a Redhat release, and it’s naturally dnf. It’s a bit fun, dnf has the same name as an online game, and there were always two people playing dnf every day in the dorm.
Although Fedora has met my requirements and letmes me understand why it is easiest to install (as Linus puts it), the final version number I used for Fedora stayed at Fedora25. The reason for this was a bit awkward, I was learning Scheme, I was using guile as REPL, I was lazy using guile in the warehouse, after typing something like sudo dnf install guile, dnf automatically installed guile1.8, in i want to use g The odd ity when uile 2.0 was replaced was that the dependency chain broke, dnf even prompted me to uninstall kernel, so I gave up using guile as a REPL in favor of chez. Like the last straw that crushed the camel, the last blow I continued to use Fedora intended to take place when updating Fedora26 was in fact a common problem for most cycle update releases, and when I got the system upgrade- I had nearly 5,000 packages to reinstall. Even though Fedora runs on one of my new devices, it still makes me feel like a waste of time. My device configuration is like this:
0.5 TB SSD s.5TB HDD
It’s a bit of a bit of fun, and now it looks like I’ve wasted a lot more time on other releases. I learned to crop compile kernels on Fedora, and the daily use of rpm helped me manage the servers I had at hand. At the moment, I think Fedora is the best choice for Linux kernel learners to take the first step, and certainly the RHEL/CentOS administrator PC.
After that, i was involved in some CTF games, and I needed to install a lot of security audit tools, and I chose KaliLinux, a slightly deformed distribution with a design concept for the average user, because it only took a few months, so I just briefly mouthed it and wouldn’t recommend it as an everyday option.
As I mentioned earlier, Fedora is more aggressive, and there may be a lot of ArchLinux users sneering at it. In fact, after Kali Linux, I was envious of the large number of user software in AUR and began to use ArchLinux as a development system for a long time. ArchLinux may indeed be the most radical and inclusive of community thinking. AUR is full of software you can’t imagine, and you can even see a lot of proprietary software because there are no protocol restrictions. AUR uses git to manage user scripts, which means that each AUR package maintainer can provide extremely simple long-term maintenance.
When you search the internet for reviews of ArchLinux, you’ll find that almost everyone will be sick of the complexity of installing it. Because of ArchLinux’s philosophy, you need to have complete manual control over everything when installing, including: network, language, software source, Xorg, driver, and so on, which will not give you graphical support other than documentation and some auxiliary scripts. In fact, I think most people exaggerate the difficulty of installing ArchLinux, and it took me 15 minutes to install ArchLinux for the first time, even faster than some distribution that provided graphics tools to guide the installation, and I think unless I had some strange problems, follow the document step by step It’s all right.
Using ArchLinux you’re bound to get into a good habit of viewing documents in a situation where their wiki documents really don’t go right. Often, you can find a solution to all the problems you encounter in the wiki. In ArchLinux, you can also choose any desktop environment you like, whether it’s KDE or DDE, or even WM has great documentation. All software is available in two ways to install: binary and source. You can choose the way you want to be based on your device’s performance. On the whole, ArchLinux is the most relaxed and has a high-quality community, documentation, and users, and if ArchLinux is the best in all three ways, the only thing that can do with it is Gentoo.
ArchLinux gave me a complete Linux structure that is known for its high customization. If you’re a user of x64 getting started with something new and exciting (suspect, i think so), ArchLinux is definitely your best bet. As for why it’s x64, ArchLinux has no official support for other architectures, and a few years ago it completely removed the 32-bit installation image, so installing an i686 ArchLinux is a bit difficult. One thing I forget is that ArchLinux is a fully rolling distribution, one-time installation, up-to-date for life.
Compilation, compilation, compilation – build the best-performing Linux
In 2018, I bought several Unix books and became interested in Unix. What is pedigree (tactical back)? For Unix’s history and branch, i can’t go into details about Unix’s history, and the story of this can probably be taken out alone to write a long article. I chose FreeBSD, a UC Berkeley-maintained class Unix, but the pedigree is not pure and can’t be called Unix. But there’s no way, in fact, when you don’t pay a monetary price, you can’t experience the Unix. FreeBSD is already a very pure Unix class, but it’s not SUS certified (no one pays). That’s why this article is used to talk about GNU/Linux, which is not necessarily necessary for Unix, Unix-like, Linux-
My time with FreeBSD was actually very short, and i used deepin for a long time. I first installed FreeBSD to experience The Unix philosophy and TECO, and then I found out that FreeBSD Ports were so useful that I wanted to use FreeBSD for a long time, and finally prompted me to leave FreeBSD, and Ports was one of them. When you also try ToRidSD, you’ll find that it does have an antique decaying taste, although its design is still modern, and as a Chinese many users of the software FreeBSD support is not good or not, you will encounter problems at compile time. As a taste of the user, in fact, there is not much incentive to solve or transplant, which is also the impact of software ecology on the operating system. What prompted me to give up FreeBSD quickly was the speed of the Ports compilation, which worked well, but it took me eight hours to compile KDE for the first time. These two points are like letting you be a lame tortoise, especially i am still an inexperienced turtle. Eventually I quickly gave up FreeBSD, despite its usefulness and stability.
When you start looking for custom-seeking performance, one of the releases you can’t stop trying is Gentoo – it has the world’s best package manager, the best community wiki documentation in the world, and USE Flag without a substitute. When I first installed Gentoo it was painful and shocking, and the pain was that it was really difficult to install, and when you first came into contact with the USE tag, it was also bound to be confused. Gentoo’s use of USE tags, Portage, and slots perfectly allows you to co-exist with computing, compilation control, and multi-version software, and you’ll find that when you use Gentoo everything is that harmonious. Gentoo also offers a warehouse like aUR – overlay, no higher in quantity and quality than AUR. And Gentoo’s team is more stable and responsible, with all official warehouse packages rigorously verified and generally of high quality.
Since Gentoo is such a good thing, isn’t everyone’s done? In fact, I’ve always had a hard time with Gentoo, but the installation configuration, second only to LFS, is difficult and a lot of compilation time has kept most people out. Because of the pursuit of the most perfect performance, all the software you have to compile to complete the installation, can not be installed through the binary package, updates are also the same. The funny thing is, I watch two movies every time I update Gentoo, and I think it’s a difficult time to use Gentoo for a long time to find movie resources.
For Gentoo I have a tip: You can use this to build a truly free operating system because you can limit the protocols for installing software.
Back to The Truth – The Linux That’s Best for Me
Later, I found that my general need for distributions was newer KDE, rolling updates, and software resources. At first I thought openSUSE Tumbleweed was my best choice, and then the servers I maintained turned into Ubuntu Server and Debian 9, and I didn’t want to use the rpm release as a desktop. It was the KDE Neon fire and I tried it. Neon seems to use few people in the country, and the same Ubuntu Base seems to be more than a choice of KUbuntu (KUbuntu is history, of course), Neon is a rolling release maintained by the KDE community. I can’t comment too much on it because it has no faults.
现在我正在使用 Debian sid ，这已经持续了一段时间。它的表现无可指点，十分优秀。尽管没有 ArchLinux/Gentoo 那般峥嵘。我认为 Debian sid 就是我日常使用的最佳选择，它稳定而易用。
At the end of this article, I’ve approximated the characteristics of the distributions I’ve used and the user base i think they’re more appropriate, hoping to help others.
For Chinese starters, I think Ubuntu Kylin is a good choice. It performs well on most models of machines, and after the desktop environment has changed to UKUI in recent years, the interactive experience is getting closer to Windows, making it more suitable for users of Windows to move to Linux.
For KDE users, I think KDE Neon and ArchLinux are the only two options, and you can experience the latest KDE on both releases, except that the Neon is driven by the KDE community.
For users looking to get deeper into Linux, I think Fedora and ArchLinux are good choices. You can experience many experimental features in both releases, and their software resources are abundant in themselves. Fedora’s only disadvantage may be that Chinese community can’t be as active as the latter.
For those who want or have become professional users, I think Gentoo and ArchLinux are good choices. They all give you flexible choices and configurations.
For users who want to build high-performance servers, I recommend Gentoo. My view may be wrong, Gentoo can control compilation parameters that fit the device itself, and the authorities maintain this secureandd version, which is said to have previously used Gentoo on the pod’s server.
For users who use it every day as a desktop, I recommend Debian. Any branch of it is good for long-term use, whether it’s stable, testing, unstable branch, it works well.