According tomedia reports, as things stand, vaccines appear to be the only weapon for humans to fight the new coronavirus. It allows the body to produce the same neutralizing antibodies that survivors of the new coronapneumonia produce when fighting the disease. Some of them also induce T-cell reactions to provide longer-lasting immunity before the antibody’s short life span. But how long will this protective matrix last?
In response, many experts say, one should not expect the new coronapneumonia immunity to last more than 12 months, as it is typical of the new coronavirus, not just the SARS-CoV-2 pathogen that causes the new coronapneumonia. This could mean that people will need to rely on vaccines for the rest of their lives to continue to help the immune system fight the virus.
Recent studies have shown that antibodies disappear after two or three months, but that doesn’t mean immunity disappears and it may become infected again. The immune system can still remember the virus and re-produce a new batch of antibodies during the second exposure.
A team of doctors from several universities in Italy, Switzerland and the UK recently suggested that antibodies could also be a catalyst for more severe symptoms of new coronary pneumonia when the virus is re-infected.
“In the early stages of SARS-CoV-2 secondary infection, an abnormal body fluid response caused by ADE may delay the reliance on an inherent antiviral immune response from type 1 interferon (IFN-1),” the researchers said. This disrupts the host’s initial antiviral response, which is followed by a large influx of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hyperinflammatory neutrophils, and mononucleosis-macrophages and a high-coagulation state, which in turn causes ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) and typical pneumonia observed in patients with severe/critical re-coronary pneumonia. “
In other words, the presence of antibodies, whether they are specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies or other coronavirus antibodies that cause the common cold, may actually be a bad thing for the immune system trying to fight SARS-CoV-2 infection or second reinfection.
The researchers note that other studies have shown that non-neutral, sub-neutral and even fully neutralized antibodies may play a key role in ADE, including two other dangerous coronaviruses, MERS and SARS. The same is true of dengue fever and West Nile virus.
The researchers note that part of the reason for the lack of a vaccine for milder coronaviruses is that immune individuals may be at greater risk of ADE because target cells promote the absorption of viral antigen-antibody complexes. “If this applies to neo-coronapneumonia, then vaccine research may not have any results. According to existing reports, the prospected phase 3 drug candidate seishastly withnoable side effects, but it will take some time for researchers to prove or counter whether the ADE phenomenon is worth paying attention to. “
Of course, this is only a theory. The researchers did not provide any evidence of the presence of ADE in the new coronal pneumonia. These are assumptions based on the circumstances of other infectious diseases. Practical studies have shown that the plasma of survivors of neo-coronary pneumonia is effective in patients with a similar immune response, and therefore antibodies are effective. But the researchers are not in favor of the treatment. In addition, other studies of animals have shown that survivors of neo-coronary pneumonia have produced antibodies that prevent secondary infections. At the same time, it is too early to suggest that a reinfection with the new coronavirus may occur in animals or humans.