Beijing time on August 4, according tomedia reports, if human spending time and space, reached 70 million years ago in the dinosaur era, you may think that their small life is not secure, it is easy to become the king dragon’s feast, the latest research of scientists show that if humans and tyrannosaurs in the same era, perhaps safe, because human running speed than the tyrannosaur dragon.
Haldane, a renowned evolutionary biologist, has suggested that when a mouse falls from a mine 300 meters deep, it climbs up at the bottom of the well, shakes the dust, and then flees at a rapid rate, even if they try again. However, if a human jumps from the same height, it will definitely break a bone, and the horse will fall down and fall to the bone.
In a 1926 article, Haldane analyzed what would happen if a 9-ton tyrannosaur fell into the mine. He didn’t describe the scene with a few adjectives, but because of his size, the tyrannical dragon would scream at 276km/h and fall into the bottom of the well, hitting the bottom with 120 tons of impact, and his body could explode and dismember it? The body was crushed? Or is there only one lump of flesh or blood left?
The sport muscle of the tyrannosaur is more than any animal in the history of the earth, but it is likely that people will escape the pursuit of the King Dragon, because the tyrannosaur is not good at running.
The result of the dragon’s eventual fall into the mine is not important, in fact, Haldane’s gruesome thinking experiment was designed to prove that the difference between large and small animals is very different from gravity. This relationship, along with different experiments in mice, humans, and horses, can be explained by the “square-cubic” law, which is a simple concept that an animal’s volume is cubic and the surface area is only square. Because the animal’s body surface area in the high-altitude fall plays a resistance brake effect, and its quality determines its impact, different species of high-altitude drop results are different, can be thrilling, tragic, or messy, was thrown flesh and blood fuzzy, which mainly depends on their size differences. This may be a simple concept, but because the drop process is so short, it’s hard to judge intuitively. This is especially true for the largest land overlord who has ever walked on Earth, if you cross time and space and live with the king dragon, can ordinary human son-in-the-air escape the killing of the king dragon?
When humans travel through time and space and live in the world of dinosaurs, they may often be chased by giant tyrannosaurs, but you don’t have to panic, they may not run as fast as humans. The sudden death of the tyrannosaurating dragon at the bottom of the mine illustrates the most important factors that humans need to consider in the face of the king’s dragon’s killing, and their awe-inspiring, massive, scary-scared running may not catch up with humans.
The adult tyrannosaurs are large and powerful, with rows of sharp teeth that can pierce triangular dragon bones and bite human-sized pieces of meat with their mouths to throw them into the air, almost as tall as today’s giraffes, weighing up to 9 tons and being close to the weight of elephants. However, if people really encounter the tyrannical dragon do not have to panic, just silently watch it, Oklahoma State University biologist Eric Sniveley has been studying dinosaur biomechanics for many years, he said: “Proportionally, the tyrannical dragon’s movement muscles than any animal in the history of the earth, but people are likely to escape the king’s dragon, because the tyrannosaur dragon is not good at running.” “
John Hutchinson, author of an article in Nature magazine entitled “The Tyrannosaurus is not a fast runner,” said: “The Tyrannosaurus jogging is probably their best result, and it’s not going to start well. “
In fact, the super-strong Tyrannosaurus rex is slow to act, and based on the “square-cubic” law, it dies very quickly in the mine. Like the body’s surface area, bone strength is square and strength is cubic, so that as the animal grows in size, it requires strong muscles and leg bones to stand, move, and run, but the body size exceeds a certain level and strength cannot maintain balance. Although the tyrannosaur is a muscular, any light jogging creates enough pressure to break the leg bone. Mr Sniveley said the dragon’s weight, muscles and bones would not exceed 20km/h. Although the fastest human speed is also 20 kilometers per hour, but the speed of the king dragon is slower, in the average running speed is similar, the human body is more flexible, it is easy to escape the slow action of the king dragon hunt.
Admittedly, some experts have speculated that the tyrannosaurs hunt collectively will make it difficult for prey to escape. Thankfully, the current archaeological evidence suggests that even though tyrannosaurs may be in groups hunting their prey like crocodiles, they are not as well coordinated as wolves.
Of course, if humans cross time and space into the Jurassic period, the Tyrannosaurus rex is not your only fear of predators, many carnivorous dinosaurs of varying sizes may be interested in you, and whether you can surpass them depends on their weight.
Three years ago, Miriam Hurt, a biologist at the German Centre for Biological Diversity Research, asked a seemingly simple question: Why aren’t the biggest and strongest animals – whales, elephants and rhinos the fastest moving? And the smallest size, mice, small fish, thousand-foot insects are not the slowest movement? Is there an optimal ratio of speed and body shape?
Miriam believes that nature should have the perfect size to reach the fastest speed, if an animal wants to get the fastest speed, then its weight is about 90 kg, but the aquatic creature is a little heavier, the flying creature is slightly lighter.
She found a precise parabolic relationship between body size and speed, which not only suggested that you needed to be in awe of medium-sized dinosaurs, but also that people didn’t have to worry about the threat of giant dinosaurs. This is because there is an interaction between strength, speed and metabolism.
The animal’s maximum speed is the meeting point of two factors, the first being the total muscle mass of the animal, which is proportional to its weight, and the second factor is its weight acceleration. Acceleration depends on the storage of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy in anaerobic muscles or muscle fibers, and the rapid, powerful contractions required for rapid contractions of the muscles are quickly depleted, and their ability is determined by metabolism.
For some reason, animal strain (metabolism) is decreasing in line with weight, and if our metabolism is proportional to mice, we have to eat about 11 kg of food a day, yet we only eat 1.8 kg of food per day. As a result, larger animals are stronger and more nutrient-absorbing, but produce much less energy to accelerate and overcome inertia.
The scientists mapped the ratio of running speed to weight in animals of different sizes.
By creating a simple formula to express this balance, Miriam predicts the speed of animals based only on their weight, and when she combines the formula with the speed of measurements of modern animals, she found that this method can predict the speed of large dinosaurs such as the Tyrannosaurus, adding the weight of the dinosaurs to the formula, which showed that humans could eliminate the predatory threat of dinosaurs weighing more than 2,720 kilograms due to their metabolism and weight limitations.
Unfortunately, higher weight in predators that pose a threat to humans is not a major feature, and Miriam also found that the speed limit for the largest dinosaurs, but the size of the animalbes below that limit is not the only factor determining speed. It is clear that two animals of close weight, such as humans and cheetahs, run at very different speeds depending on their physical structure. When people tie their running shoes, you need to know the exact speed of your opponent. You need to know if you can beat the dinosaur in a long run, or if you’re betting on your life to run a “race of life and death” with a dinosaur.
How can scientists determine the exact speed of a certain dinosaur based on dinosaur bone fossils or footprints alone?
In a study published in May in the journal Public Library of Science, paleontologist Alexander DiCage led a team of scientists who combined The meliam’s research with equations proposed by British zoologist Robert Alexander to estimate the speed at which 71 dinosaur species could run. It is reported that in 1976, Alexander made an important observation, he observed and analyzed many animals as small as ferrets, large as rhinos, and found that each animal ran with similar gait, gait is an engineering term, meaning that as long as changes in their body size ratio, you can get simple and the same movement posture, like a pendulum of different sizes. It’s like people knowing the length and angle of the pendulum to calculate their swing frequency, and Alexander’s latest findings allow scientists to estimate the speed of the dinosaur’s run based on hip height and step length alone.
Unfortunately, this is only a rough formula, and there can be serious errors, such as: DiCage’s calculations show that the carnivorous Albertan son is 35 km/h, and although you may escape from danger, the Alberta dinosaur runs in a way that is close to that of a cheetah, in which case the chances of human escape are very low.
If people cross into the dinosaur world, the tyrannosaur snags won’t run faster than you, but it will still follow you and try to find every opportunity to hunt you down.
However, Alexander and Miriam’s latest research provides interesting insights into the behavior, motor ability and evolutionary ways of dinosaurs, and by comparing the steps, weight and running speed of the tyrannical dragon, The Dikache study shows that the long legs of the tyrannosaurs evolved not to speed up, and that their running speed has been limited by their own acceleration ability, after all, it is large in size. In fact, the long-legged structure of the Tyrannosaurus is designed to improve walking efficiency and endurance, and if people cross into the world of dinosaurs, the tyrannosaur snags won’t run faster than you, but it will still follow you and try to find every opportunity to hunt you down.
Dinosaurs were large and muscular, but may not run as fast as medium-sized animals.
Dicage’s assessment clearly suggests that humans may not be able to escape the attacks of other carnivorous dinosaurs, after all, there were a large number of medium-sized, fast, dangerous carnivorous dinosaurs during the Jurassic period that scientists could not fully count. However, we can use some species as examples, if you see dinosaurs with similar size and weight to the dinosaurs listed below, you expect to have similar movement performance.
Chilong, a raptor-like dinosaur, low-risk; Alberta Dragon, with a body length of 9 meters, a top speed of 35 kilometers per hour, medium-risk; Delta dragon, high-risk.
People sprint running the top speed of 24 kilometers per hour, 100 meters sprint gold medalist running speed can reach 43 kilometers per hour, a middle-distance runner’s speed of 35 kilometers per hour, ordinary people running at a uniform speed of 24 kilometers per hour, jogging speed of 11 kilometers per hour.
If some kind of carnivorous dinosaur attacks humans, you’re not bound to die.
In fact, unless you’re a top sprinter or a good amateur sprinter, all carnivorous dinosaurs are outperforming you. If some kind of carnivorous dinosaur attacks humans, you’re not necessarily doomed to death, and one can be verified by the competition between cheetahs and impetans, lions and zebras, who are, after all, very intelligent and, after all, can inspire instinctive potential to escape when attacked by other predators in nature.
Professor Alan Wilson, of the Royal College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of London, who specializes in sports biomechanics, installed accelerometers on predators and prey bodies to calculate their precise speed, agility and hunting tactics, and the final measurements showed that the cheetah ran at least 85km/h, while its prey, the Impey, had a top speed of 64km/h; It is clear that the speed of running between predators and prey varies widely, but statistics show that impeists and zebras, as prey, escape twice in every three hunts, and although the lion is faster than the imperesean, its catch rate is so low that it does not even chase the impmait on the open grasslands. Wilson points out that if humans and dinosaurs were to encounter the real thing, it would be difficult to kill humans unless they were much faster than humans.
If you want to successfully escape the dinosaur’s hunt, the most important thing is that the escape process must be random.
But only if you know how to escape, if you don’t take a strategy, just run at the fastest speed, you must not be able to escape danger, and eventually leave the mesogens as a dung fossil. On the contrary, if you want to successfully escape the dinosaur’s hunt, you must brainily respond with the best strategy and, most importantly, be able to adapt during the flight.
When Wilson’s accelerometer measured the speed at which the impeths escaped the cheetah,they found that although the imperesweret could reach a staggering 64km/h, they never exceeded 49km/h in the race, and he believed that prey such as the impereseanes sacrificed mobility during high-speed runs. At high speeds, the ionise’s sharp turns become larger, making its trajectory more easily predicted by predators. If humans are prey, in such cases, you must ensure that predators cannot predict your course of action, which requires you to complete a nice sharp turn at low speeds and then accelerate your escape from danger.
When Wilson inputs the prey and prey’s motion parameters into a computer model, he finds that prey must use two simple strategies, first, to change the running route frequently when the dinosaurs start to catch up with you, but not to slow down, and the predator’s high-speed run will be slow to react;
In fact, as prey humans and impetans are the same goal – to buy time, physical endurance advantage is very prominent in the process. Recent research suggests that some dinosaur species may have extraordinary endurance, but humans have elastic hip muscles, more elastic Achilles tendons, and an effective physical cooling system that makes humans the best endurance runners in nature. This means that the longer humans run and chase in the race against dinosaurs, the greater the probability that humans will win.
Sniveli stressed that people should be afraid of not the huge adult tyrannosaurs, but the teenage tyrannosaurs. Unlike most animals, the tyrannosaurs did not reach the speed of running as a teenager, but the fastest running speed in their teens. In the 14-year-old, its body is more flexible, weight of about 907 kg, running speed of 53 kilometers per hour, and its jaw is strong enough to quickly bite off human bones, at the same time, in the teenage tyrannosaurs are also more aggressive, they are not like adult tyrannosaurs kill 3 tons of platypus and 5 tons of triangular dragons, and young tyrannosaurs are likely to prey on human size.
Unless you’re an Olympic sprinter, in this case you may face a fellow illon, and you may have to run away in other ways if you can squeeze into a small cave or dense thorns, or lure the tyrannosaur into a trap for a greater escape. You can try to lay a shrub on a puddle, a pit with wooden piles, and if you want to blur the flesh and blood of the Tyrannosaurus directly, you can lure it into a very deep mine. (Leaf Town)