When a giant star many times larger than our sun collapses into a black hole, it releases incredible energy,media CNET reported. A huge burst of energy, called a gamma-ray burst (GRB), usually produces the same energy as the sun throughout its life cycle. Astronomers have recently seen two GRBs in the distant universe burst into the highest energy of all time, opening up a new way to understand the phenomenon.
In three papers published November 20 in the journal Nature, researchers from around the world, in collaboration, reported two extreme outbreaks: GRB 190114C and GRB 180720B. Typically, the energy rays emitted by GRBs are in the keV range, and astronomers have seen them produce pulses below 100GeV, but GRB 190114C is 10 times more powerful, in the 0.2-1 TeV range.
The Proton Test Collision Level of the Large Hadron Collider has previously reached 13TeV, which accelerates protons to 6.5 TeV. Neutron stars lurking in the middle of the Crab Nebula have been emitting gamma-ray energy at a speed of 450 TeV. But this is the first time astronomers have detected TeV-rated gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.
Gemma Anderson, an astronomer at the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, said: “In theory, all GRBs produce TeV gamma rays, but our technology is only advanced enough to detect them before they disappear.” “
GRB 190114C was first discovered on January 14, 2019 by NASA’s Neil Gales Swift Observatory and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The scientists have since made observations using the Atmospheric GammaCherlenkov Imaging Telescope (MAGIC). Researchers around the world continue to work together to focus on the event and observe it at a variety of wavelengths (radio, infrared, optical and X-ray).
“All the GRB astronomers in the world are very excited because this is the first time this has happened,” Says Anderson. “
Anderson, from Australia, and other researchers contacted scientists responsible for the Australian radio telescope’s dense array to monitor events and “afterglows.” Anderson and her team also worked with the South African SKA Pathfinder Telescope to study the high and low RF outbreaks of GRB 190114C.
By putting all the data together, the emission spectrum can be recorded and analyzed. The results help to prove long-term theories about the types of radiation produced by GRB. Scientists call it a “revolutionary discovery.”
The team will continue to observe gamma-ray storms, but Anderson notes that many of the high-energy “light” has disappeared. “We’re only detecting very low-energy radio light now, but soon it’s going to disappear completely, so we can only see optical and radio light from its host galaxy,” she said. “
“Whether all GRBs produce TeV gamma rays is one of the big scientific questions we’re exploring right now,” Says Anderson. “