Mars migration Scientists are trying to make the brain hole a reality.

As humans learn more about Mars as a neighbor, “visiting” becomes less distant. NASA has announced plans to send the first humans to Mars by the mid-1930s. The issue of Mars immigration was also put on the agenda early, and from time to time because of various professionals throwing out the new brain hole caused a heated debate.

Nuclear bombs and aerogels, who’s more reliable?

For more than a century, sci-fi writers have been passionate about the story of the red planet, describing breathable air, liquid water and advanced extraterrestrial life.

However, in 1965, the Mariner 4 rover took its first close-up picture and found that Mars was completely uninhabitable – up to 96% carbon dioxide concentrations, desolate, dry, thin atmosphere, very dangerous.

Mars migration Scientists are trying to make the brain hole a reality.

In 1965, the Mariner 4 rover took the first close-up of Mars.

But writers and scientists have not given up. Instead, they focused on turning Mars to Earth: using technology to radically transform it into a place where humans can live.

Many industry figures have come up with the idea of warming Mars, or even reshaping it with an atmosphere.

In 1971, Carl Sagan proposed that all frozen water and carbon dioxide on the ice crown of Mars be evaporated, and the resulting gas would warm the planet.

Mars migration Scientists are trying to make the brain hole a reality.

Mars Ice Crown.

And Elon Musk’s idea sounds even more incredible, proposing to detonate more than 10,000 nuclear warheads at the poles of Mars. He believes the explosion will evaporate a large portion of the ice cap on Mars, releasing enough water vapor and carbon dioxide, while releasing a lot of heat radiation when a nuclear bomb explodes. Fortunately, the method of doing so in this day and night has not been recognized by scientists, both technically and ethically.

In contrast, a material called silica aerogel appears to be more implementable. The “Earthization” of the whole of Mars is difficult to achieve, and it is possible to consider first transforming small areas into habitable environments. The aerogel absorbs enough heat from sunlight to form liquid water on Mars and earth-like temperature zones.

Mars migration Scientists are trying to make the brain hole a reality.

Silicon dioxide aerogel.

Although it is called “gel”, it is actually a solid, rigid, dry material that is extracted from the gel using a supercritical drying method similar to the one used to make decaffeinated coffee. As an ultra-light solid, it is 97% porous, which means that light can pass through the material, while the interconnection of silicon dioxide nanocells captures infrared radiation, greatly slowing heat transfer.

If this technology works, future Martians could live in aerogel-made greenhouses, where water remains liquid, plants can grow and temperatures are habitable.

Change the world, or change yourself.

Even if we solve the problem of water, oxygen and temperature, we still have to deal with radiation exposure. Mars doesn’t have a magnetic field like Earth’s, so it can’t resist the solar wind. Some scientists have suggested that a large number of cryogenic superconductor rings could be built to generate artificial magnetic fields, but this is still a superficial concept on paper.

John Lennon once said, “If you can’t change yourself, you change the world, if you can’t change the world, you change yourself.” “Scientists have a different idea, and if it’s too difficult to change the Martian environment, they might be able to turn your eyes back to humans themselves.

Geneticists say humans may one day be able to genetically engineer to reduce the risk of space travel and settling on Mars. If scientists can find a way to help human cells withstand radiation, astronauts will be able to live healthier lives in space, for example through epigenetic engineering. This usually means that they will “turn on or off” the expression of certain genes.

Or there’s a much weirder way. Researchers are exploring how to combine the DNA of other species with human cells to make astronauts more resistant to the harmful effects of space flight.

The DNA scientists see is derived from the highly resilient water bear worm, the only animal known to survive in space. Doesthat sound like an X-Men? But after watching the picture of the water bear bug, the author said, extremely do not want to combine with it …

Mars restaurants, raw materials are…

Mars migration Scientists are trying to make the brain hole a reality.

Food is a big problem on Mars. Future Martians will not want to eat potatoes for a living, as Matt Damon did in Mars Rescue.

China has carried out experiments on space-growing vegetables on Tiangong II, but the protein and fat provided by plants are relatively limited and cannot meet the healthy dietary needs of space migrants.

In order to produce more protein-rich foods, scientists have targeted human stools. Because of the large amount of nitrogen and carbon, it is theoretically possible to synthesize protein foods.

Of course, direct consumption has no protein supplementary effect, and even if it does, I’m afraid more people will choose to be a malnourished Martian.

In fact, to turn the pomeuse into an edible protein, different bacteria need to be added to it, one used to produce methane and nitrogen-containing gases, and the other to produce two gases as food, further producing protein and fat, and eventually to produce a food similar to the taste of a turtle paste or a tart. The food contains 52% protein and 36% fat, and looks good at nutrition.

If you raise the temperature of the “poop food factory” to 70 degrees, replace the “employees” with heat-resistant aquatic bacteria, and produce a more fat-friendly food – the protein content is increased to 61%, while the fat content drops to 16%.

If you do open a “light-up restaurant” on Mars, astronauts might be the first customers. After all, they’ve been drinking drinking water from urine purification for a long time in space.

The International Space Station is equipped with a $250 million water circulation system to collect urine from astronauts, sweat evaporated into the air and water vapor exhaled into the air. After purification treatment generated by drinking water, and then by the astronauts drink into the body, is really fat water does not flow out of the field.

Moving to Mars: How far are we from?

Hawking once predicted that man kind of man would have to flee the earth within 100 years or it would perish.

In 2016, Elon Musk detailed plans for “Colonisation of Mars” at the 67th International Astronautical Congress, sending 1 million people and about 10 to 100 million tons of supplies to Mars over the next 40 to 100 years (a rough calculation based on the population needed for self-sufficiency in Mars civilization).

Mars migration Scientists are trying to make the brain hole a reality.

Musk’s plan for “Colonisation of Mars.”

Prepare the concept ship.

Four years on, the “Colonisation of Mars” programme seems to be stuck at the macro level, with little encouraging real progress. Instead, a controversial new study published in the journal New Space: Space Entrepreneurship and Innovation, which looks at resource use and technology strategies, shows that Mars can achieve food self-sufficiency of 1 million people within 100 years through detailed models of population growth, heat demand, land use and potential food sources.

But even if the cost of traveling to Mars can be significantly reduced and the basic problem of survival on Mars is solved, it is unclear whether so many brave Martian enthusiasts will be recruited, after all, it is likely to be a one-way trip to the back, a huge challenge.

The exploration of Mars is a comprehensive and comprehensive subject for the continuation of human beings, if there is a chance to go to Mars in your lifetime, would you buy yourself a “ticket”?