According to the annual report of the National Cancer Center, the number of cancer cases and deaths in China is on the rise, and cancer has become the leading cause of death among Chinese residents, with about 25% of cancer deaths related to smoking, said He Jie, director of the National Cancer Center and director of the Oncology Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.
On the 21st, the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences held a press conference on the theme of “Making Science Alert to the Harms of Smoking” to interpret the latest scientific research evidence and promote tobacco control knowledge. Hertier introduced the relationship between tobacco and tumors at the conference.
Tobacco-generated smoke contains hundreds of harmful substances, at least 70 of which are carcinogens that can cause a serious burden of disease, Hetty said. Nearly 2.21 million people died of cancer in China in 2017, accounting for 24.85 percent of all deaths, and these numbers will increase dramatically in the coming decades due to an ageing population, industrialization, increased urbanization, and lifestyle changes, such as lack of physical activity and unhealthy diets.
Cigarette smoking can lead to a variety of malignancies, Hertier said. China conducted research on smoking and lung cancer in the 1980s. The conclusion is that smoking leads to an increased risk of lung cancer and death. In 2016, a study published in the journal Science found that smoking a pack of cigarettes a day for a year causes 150 mutations in the normal lung cells, which explains why smokers are at increased risk of lung cancer.
Not only lung cancer, but also have sufficient scientific basis to prove that smoking can lead to oral cancer, throat cancer, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, kidney, bladder cancer and other malignant tumors, and the greater the amount of smoking, the longer the number of years of smoking, The higher the risk of developing these cancers, a prospective study of chronic diseases in China followed up on more than 500,000 Chinese groups, and found that male smokers had a 2.51-fold risk of cancer and female smokers 2.28 times less likely to develop cancer.
Smoking-related cancers pose a serious financial burden, and lung cancer is the number one cancer among Chinese residents, Hetty said. In 2015, about 730,000 lung cancer struck China and killed about 600,000 people, 42.7 percent of which were attributed to smoking. Lung cancer caused by smoking causes serious economic losses, estimated at about $5,249 million. If divided by age, the related economic losses of the 60-64 age group are higher, by sex, men are higher than women, by urban and rural areas, urban areas are higher than rural areas, by region, the east is higher than the west. One in four cancer-related deaths is caused by smoking. According to the annual report released by the National Cancer Center, the number and number of cancer cases in China are on the rise.
At present, cancer has become the leading cause of death among Chinese residents, with about 25 percent of cancer deaths linked to smoking, Hetty stressed. This year, the National Cancer Center published a study in The Lancet Global Health, using 978 county-level monitoring points in 31 provinces and autonomous regions in China, the results were: 2014 adult cancer incidence data covered a total of 430 million people over 20 years of age, of which 45.2%, or 1.036 million deaths, were attributed to 23 risk factors, of which smoking caused the highest proportion of deaths. Of all 31 provinces and municipalities, the number one cause of cancer for men is smoking, and about a quarter of cancer deaths in men are due to smoking, with more than half of lung cancer deaths being caused by smoking.
At present, China’s cancer epidemic profile is different from western countries, lung cancer accounted for the first, accounting for 27.3% of the total number of cancer deaths, followed by liver cancer, stomach cancer and other digestive tract tumors, which may be related to the high smoking rate of Chinese groups.
Quitting smoking can reduce the risk of lung cancer and death, Hetty said. Quitting smoking can effectively reduce the risk of lung cancer, and the longer you quit smoking, the greater the risk. In the case of lung squamous cancer, the risk of developing lung cancer decreased gradually by 84% and 61% and 41%, respectively, if you quit smoking for 1-4 years, 5-9 years and more than 10 years. Large-scale cohort studies show that after quitting smoking for more than five years, the risk of lung cancer is 39.1% lower than that of continuous smokers, so the best way to prevent lung cancer is to prevent nonsmokers from smoking. For people who already smoke, it is important to emphasize that the earlier the risk of quitting smoking is lower.
Hetje said that the Party and the government have always attached great importance to tobacco control work, and governments at all levels, especially health education and tobacco control associations at all levels and other departments have made unremitting efforts to reduce the consumption of tobacco. The State Council’s Opinion on the Implementation of Healthy China suggests that smoking rates among people over 15 years of age should be reduced to no more than 24.5% and 20% by 2022 and 2030, and that the incidence of cancer, especially lung cancer, will decrease.
“Let us take action to control the harms of tobacco, effectively curb the rising burden of cancer, and improve people’s health.” Hertier said.