What are the challenges of Japan’s land-based exploration of Lunar New Year around Mars?

2020 is undoubtedly the Year of Mars, with the United Arab Emirates, China and the United States launching exploration missions. Japan’s sword has gone the other way, announcing that it will challenge mars’ two moons in 2024 and return after landing on Phobos. The German Space Center (DLR), which is working with the Japan Aerospace Research and Development Agency (JAXA) on the mission and is responsible for the development of the rover’s structure and mobile systems, recently revealed that engineers have developed the rover’s first model and are conducting initial landing tests in Thermodean.

Mars’s two moons, Edo, are larger on the inside, about 27 km x 22 km x 18 km;

What is the detection value of the “little dots” in these two solar systems? The German Space Center says their origins are a scientific challenge. The two satellites could be asteroids captured by Mars, or they could have been formed by a collision between a larger object and Mars. The formation mechanisms of Mars, Ernest and Ernest will help us gain insight into the origins of planets in our solar system.

As part of Japan’s Mars exploration mission MMX, the rover is scheduled to launch into orbit in 2024 and Mars in 2025. The rover’s landing is scheduled for late 2026 or early 2027, and after landing, it will take about 100 days to analyze the surface characteristics of the rover in detail.

The gravity on Fire is only two thousandths of that of Earth, and the 25-kilogram rover lands in a free-falling manner at an altitude of about 40 to 100 meters. Engineers at the German Space Center say a particular challenge is that the free-fall rover may land in any direction, and the exact location of its landing is full of chance, possibly hitting rocks.

In addition, extreme temperature differences on Fire are a challenge. Fire orbits Mars three times a day, and every day and night cycle, its surface temperature drops from minus 50 degrees Celsius to minus 150 degrees Celsius. The inside of the detector must maintain a relatively constant temperature to ensure the quality of scientific measurements.

Japan was the third country on Earth, after the Soviet Union and the United States, to launch an attack on the Red Planet. In 1998, Japan launched the Nozomi Mars Orbiter, which plans to investigate the Martian upper atmosphere and its interactions with the solar wind for a long time to track escape gases. However, due to a malfunction shortly after launch, hope finally did not have enough fuel to enter the target orbit. In 1999, Hope passed by Mars. In 2003, Japan officially abandoned the repair of the Hope.

Over the past five years, the process of constantly trying to adjust, hoping and then disappointment has undoubtedly been exhausting. In February, Japan bypassed Mars’ “star” and announced that it would probe its two moons, Phobos and Deimos.

If successful, Japan will be the record-breaker on the track. You know, as early as 1988, the Soviet Union launched two consecutive Lunar New Orbiter probes, both of which ended in failure. In 2011, Russia again tried to challenge Fire I, failed to change orbit, and lost firefly-1, China’s first Mars rover, which was bundled with it.

Japan’s plan to return samples was inspired by the success of Hayabusa2. The probe successfully landed on the asteroid Dragon Palace, about 340 million kilometers from Earth, in February 2019, collecting surface samples and discovering hydration minerals. In April of the same year, Osprey 2 fired a metal bomb at the Dragon Palace, hitting the underground material. It then landed on the asteroid again and collected underground samples. The samples are expected to return to Earth in December.

It’s worth noting that Japan’s Fire exploration program has the same lineup as Osprey 2, with the participation of the German Space Center, the French Space Research Center (CNES) and NASA.