Beijing time on November 9th, according tomedia reports, no matter how we observe the universe, at low temperatures or at extremely high energy levels, near the Earth or the farthest part of the observable universe, we will observe the same laws of physics. The basic constants are the same, the gravitational performance is the same, and the quantum conversion and relativity effects are identical.
Quantum gravity theory attempts to combine Einstein’s general theory of relativity with quantum modernity.
At any point in the observable universe, the application of general relativity (dominant gravity) and quantum field theory (dominant other known forces) seems to be the same as on Earth. But has this always been the case? Is it possible that quantum field in the universe has ever been different? Even once there was no quantum field at all? Chris Shaw, a supporter of the crowdfunding site Patreon, wanted to know the answers to those questions and asked:
“When did the first batch of subfields in the universe form?” Have they been around since the Big Bang? Could it have been even earlier than this, forming the period of expansion before the Big Bang? “
Quantum farms may exist even under unexpected conditions. For quantum farms, we currently have the following information.
Pictured is a map of the magnetic field of a long striped magnet. This magnet is a “magnetic pole”, that is, the magnetic field of the South Pole and the North Pole combined. Even if the external magnetic field is removed, such permanent magnets retain magnetism. If the magnets are folded in half, the north and south poles do not separate, but form two magnets, each with its own South Pole and North Pole.
When it comes to “field”, most people probably know the same as 19th-century scientists: if there was an electric charge or a permanent magnet, it would form a field around itself in all directions of space. Whether or not other particles are affected by it, this field exists. But you can detect the presence of the field (and how the field can affect objects and effects) by interacting with the field with various charges.
For example, iron powder can be arranged in a magnetic field in the direction of the magnetic field. The charge accelerates under the action of force in the electric field (or when moving in a magnetic field), depending on the strength of the field.
In Einstein and Newton’s conceptual system, even gravity can be described as a field, and any form of matter or energy is affected by the cumulative gravitational effect on its position in space, thus determining its future trajectory.
In any reference system in Einstein and Newton’s concept of gravity, a gravitational field model can be established. If you look only at the classical theoretical system, the concept of field is very useful, but not complete.
However, while this visualization is useful and common, it can only be established with non-quantum settings. It is a good embodiment of the classical field operation mechanism, but we are in the reality and quantum is closely related. According to our perception of the classical physical world, the field is smooth and continuous, and the characteristics of the field exist at any point, from the theoretical minimum to the theoretical maximum. In the quantum universe, however, none of this will work.
Quantum field is not only around the source (such as mass or charge), but everywhere. If there is mass (corresponding gravity), charge (corresponding electromagnetic), a particle with a non-zero weak superload (corresponding to weak nuclear force), or a color charge (corresponding to strong nuclear force), they will be represented as the excitation state of the field, but the presence of the field is not affected regardless of the existence of these field sources. Not only that, the field is quantum, and its zero energy (or the lowest energy level it can have) can be zero.
Today, Fermanto is used to calculate every basic interaction between strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces, including at high, low, or condensed levels. Even without particles, Fermanto still exists, representing quantum field in a vacuum.
In other words, what we understand is that a “vacuum” without charge, mass, or any field source is not really empty, but has the quantum field mentioned above. This means that space is also filled with quantum fluctuations caused by the combination of the quantum properties of the field and the Hesenberg uncertainty principle, occupying every possible quantum pattern and quantum state (the probability of these quantum states being occupied is specific and theoretically computable).
You might be skeptical and think, “So what?” Quantum field theory is only a method of calculation, and it is not enough to verify whether these quantum field exists in a vacuum or not. “But in fact, we can use it to do experiments. Take two parallel conductive plates and place them in the most perfect vacuum you can create, where there is no substance and no field source of any kind, only the quantum field that the vacuum brings, including the most basic quantum electromagnetic field.
Outside of these two conductive plates, all possible states of these quantum farms can exist without any restrictions on quantum patterns. But inside the conductive plate, only a portion of the quantum field can exist, because some boundary conditions prevent the generation of specific electromagnetic waves, resulting in the quantum field part of the excitation state can not exist. Even without any source of electromagnetic waves, these excitation fields are different both inside and outside the board, creating a force called the Kasimir force on the board.
Pictured is a diagram of the Kasimir effect. As can be seen, the forces (and electromagnetic field states) on the inside and outside of the two boards are different. Since there are more quantum patterns that can exist outside the board than inside the board, there is a net attraction between the two boards.
Cassimir was first predicted by Hendrik Casimir in 1948, but it was not until 1997 that it was confirmed in experiments. Physicist Steve Lamoreaux successfully completed the experiment and the results were within 5 per cent of Kassimil’s prediction. These quantum farms are indeed ubiquitous in space. This experiment not only proves the existence of quantum farms, but also shows the intensity of their effects.
Physicists want to know whether quantum field in vacuum is composed entirely of what we know as quantum field (i.e., a standard model and quantum field associated with gravity) or whether it contains other quantum field. For example, these sources may also produce quantum fields: sources of dark matter, phenomena or fields that produce dark energy, fields left over from the expansion period of the universe, new fields or new interactions formed by the general theoretical system, or any new physical phenomena other than standard models (including but not limited to new forces or particles, etc.).
The amount of quantum field known in a vacuum cannot really be calculated at this time, but in theory it can be calculated if you have a computer that is powerful enough. It is not clear whether the universe we know is entirely made up of known fields, particles, and interactions.
Although the laws of physics do not change in our observations, either in particle accelerators or in the earliest stages of the Big Bang observable, the nature of quantum field ensures that the intensity of quantum coupling (consistent with the force that particles feel in the quantum field) changes as a function of energy and temperature.
In physics, we call this the “run of the coupling constant”. You can understand that these virtual quantum particles occupy more excitation modes than low-energy base states. While this does not mean that the quantum fields that dominated the universe in the early days of the universe were different from those of today, it also illustrates something: these coupling constants may have been unified at some point, suggesting that strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces may all have originated from the same set of general theories. Under this theory, all forces were unified.
If coupled constants are represented as functions on a two-way axis, they lose their arms to each other, as shown in the figure on the left. But if you add a predicted supersymmode particle, these constants intersect at 1015 GeV (billion electron volts), the traditional large unified energy scale.
This framework not only provides the possibility of the existence of other quantum field, exposes the influence of these quantum field in high energy, but also suggests that there may be a set of “ultimate unity theory”, or “the theory of everything” in the universe. If this state does exist, you can imagine it as the ultimate form of restoring symmetry, like putting a ball on top of the highest mountain on a planet.
If symmetry is broken, the ball rolls down the hill and falls to the lowest point of a valley along the road. But if you put the ball back to the top of the mountain, try a few more times, and try to balance it as much as possible, the ball doesn’t necessarily roll down the same path every time, depending on the following factors: small differences in initial conditions, small, even quantum-level fluctuations, the speed at which the universe expands or cools, and the existence of new field couplings.
When symmetry is restored (the yellow ball at the top), everything is symmetrical and each state has the same priority. But when symmetry is broken at low energy (the blue ball at the bottom), the degrees of freedom of the parties are no longer the same. The “low point” at which the ball rolls into different quantum farms may also be different.
Once symmetry is broken, there may end up with multiple final states. If we dial time back to the original, there is no guarantee that the same laws of physics and basic constants will evolve each time. Just as we believe that the emergence of humans on Earth is pure luck, the universe now possesses these laws of physics and constants, and may just happen to be winning.
However, as we go back to the early stages of the Big Bang, there is no evidence that the universe ever reached the temperature required for the above-mentioned theoretical unity (and restoration of symmetry). Particles are produced when symmetry is broken, and if such large monopoles do occur, a large number of magnetic monopoles should be produced. And this particle obviously doesn’t exist in the universe. If the quantum field we know today originated in an earlier period, it must have been before the Big Bang.
Does this mean that quantum field may have been formed during the expansion of the universe?
The figure is a diagram of several separate universes. These universes are distributed in an expanding universe “ocean” and there is no causal relationship between them. In the context of multiple universes, there may be many different “pocket universes”, but no one knows whether the laws of physics or basic constants in these universes are different from the universe in which we are located.
It’s possible, but we’re not sure. Based on our inferred energy limit for the expansion period of the universe, the energy in the expansion period may not have reached the levels required to form a quantum field. Although the expansion period model needs to introduce the concept of multiple universes to be established, the assumption that “constants or laws are different in different ‘pocket universes’ is too speculative.”
One thing is certain, though: certain types of quantum farms must exist during the expansion period. They may be the same, perhaps different, and beyond what we know, but they must exist anyway. How do we know this? This is because the fluctuations we observe in the universe today are exactly the same as expected from quantum field fluctuations that exist during expansion.
Quantum fluctuations during the expansion of the universe do length longer, but they also lead to fluctuations in total energy density. Fluctuations in these fieldes led to uneven distribution of density in the early universe and, as a result, temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background. In terms of expansion, these fluctuations must be insotherbic (i.e. there is no heat and particle exchange with the outside world).
These fluctuations generally occur at the quantum level at the microscale. During the expansion of the universe, these fluctuations were stretched throughout the universe, transforming them into temperature and density fluctuations at the beginning of the Big Bang and leaving an indelible mark on the universe. We can now observe these fluctuations and their results, suggesting that these quantum farms existed during the expansion of the universe.
How long space-time has been around, and how long certain types of quantum farms must have existed. But until the last moment of the expansion period, we will never know what happened in the universe, because it is beyond the scope of the observable universe. In the absence of evidence, we can only constantly explore the limits of known information and match it to the residual information in the universe. Although the speculation we have made is interesting and intuitive, we will never know what the truth is. (Leaves)