Take stock of the top ten scientific errors: “Earth Age” has been identified as 100 million years old

Beijing time on November 19 news, according tomedia reports, “people are not sages, can never have”, which is indeed not a good excuse. Scientific mistakes can be very bad, because relying on science should be the best way for people to make sure they are right, but scientists are ordinary people after all, and even if they have superb scientific knowledge, mistakes will inevitably occur. In fact, mistakes are so often made in science, and most scientists will tell you that there is no other way to get the answer. This will inspire others to try to explore the truth and make these scientific mistakes the best way to make progress.

A false scientific experiment may lead scientists to conduct more in-depth experiments that not only correct previous mistakes, but also discover facts that have not been suspected before.

Still, some scientific errors can be embarrassing for scientists, and a recent scientific report on the possibility of life on Venus made scientific headlines and was reprinted in major scientific media. However, when the researchers conducted an in-depth analysis, concerns were expressed about the report’s conclusions. The report mentions the discovery of gaseous hydrogen phosphate in Venus’ atmosphere, a chemical thought to be produced only by life forms, suggesting that there may be mysterious life in Venus, but the theory is now beginning to be somewhat “unreliable” and that gaseous hydrogen phosphate cannot be conclusive evidence of potential life.

Although the final conclusions on hydrogen phosphate have not yet been finalized, this is a good opportunity to review some of the other notable errors in the field of analytical science. Here, we are not talking about scientific fraud, or pseudo-scientific assertions that deliberately exaggerate facts, or initial false positives due to random statistical errors.

Here are the top 10 wrong scientific conclusions selected by the researchers, which received a lot of attention before they were finally refuted.

1, the theory of the center of the earth

Clearly, the Earth’s centrist theory is wrong, and Aristotle was not the first to propose the theory that the Earth is the center of the universe, but he is the most stubborn to this view and believes that he can prove it on the basis of logical relationships, there is no doubt about it. He insisted that the Earth must be the center of the universe, because all elements always move to its “natural position”. Although Aristotle invented formal logic, he apparently did not notice a certain number of cycles in his argument. In 1543, Gobaini presented conclusive evidence that Aristotle was wrong. In 1610, Galileo observed that Venus had undergone a series of phase changes, which laid the foundation for the solar system theory at its center.

2, the age of the universe

When astronomers first discovered the expansion of the universe in the late 1920s, they naturally asked how long it had been expanding, and by measuring the current rate of expansion and pushing it back, they found that the universe must be less than 2 billion years old. However, radiological measurements confirm that the Earth is older. According to this view, it is obviously absurd that the universe could be younger. But those early calculations of the expansion of the universe were based on distance measurements of the father-made variable star.

Astronomers calculate their distance based on the rate at which the brightness of the parent variable star fluctuates, and the speed of the change in brightness depends on their own brightness. By comparing their innate and surface brightness, the distance of the father-made stars can be calculated, just as the wattage of the bulb can be measured. But it turns out that, like the bulb model, the parent variable star is not constant, and there are many types of parent variable stars, which affect the calculation of the expansion rate of the universe. The latest observations are that the universe is 13.8 billion years old, older than Earth’s 4.5 billion years.

3, the age of the earth

In the 18th century, the French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc assessed that the Earth was about 75,000 years old, although he suspected that the Earth’s “real age” might be older. Geologists in the 19th century believed that the Earth was older than previously thought – hundreds of millions of years or more old , and their conclusions were based on a large number of geological historical surveys. In 1860, Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution suggested that the Earth was older, providing ample time for the evolution of species diversity. A physicist has calculated how long it will take for a planet that would otherwise melt to cool down, concluding that the Earth’s upper age limit is 100 million years, and he has again suggested that the Earth’s actual age is smaller than the upper 100 million years. However, his calculations were wrong, not because of his poor mathematical ability, but because he did not understand radioactivity. Radioactive decay of Earth’s elements adds a lot of heat to the mixture, prolonging cooling time, and ultimately estimating the Earth’s age at about 4.5 billion years based on radioactive decay rates, especially meteorites that have been around the same time as Earth’s formation.

4. Planets orbiting pulsar

In 1991, astronomers discovered the best example yet of a planet orbiting a star outside the sun. In this example, the “star” is thought to be a pulsar, a rotating neutre star about 10,000 light-years from Earth. Changes in the pulsar’s radio pulse time indicate the existence of a companion planet orbiting the pulsar every six months. However, astronomers soon realized that the astronomical survey was wrong, and they used an inaccurate number for calculating the pulsar’s position in the sky, so much so that the signal was abnormal, not from a planet orbiting the pulsar, but from earth orbiting the sun.

5, supernova residual ultra-fast pulsar signal

Pictured is supernova 1987A, which astronomers believe is a signal released by a fast-rotating neutra star that is very difficult to understand. But it was later discovered that the signal came from a malfunction in the camera’s electronic device used to target the telescope.

In 1987, astronomers made an exciting astronomical discovery: a supernova appeared in the Large Magellanic Cloud, the closest star explosion to Earth in centuries. Subsequent observations found signals from pulsar, a rotating neutrist that should be in the middle of the debris of certain types of supernova explosions. But the potential pulsar was not discovered until January 1989, when a fast-repeating radio signal indicated that there were signs of pulsar after the supernova exploded. It releases nearly 2,000 radio signals per second, far more than scientists expected. But after a night of steady pulses, the pulsar mysteriously disappeared, and theorists came up with theories to explain what happened to the eerie pulsar. In early 1990, telescope operators turned a video camera (used to guide the telescope) and put it back into service, discovering that the pulsar signal had reappeared, surrounding the remains of a different supernova. So this so-called pulsar signal is actually a glitch in the navigation camera’s electronics, not a pulsar signal from space.

6, single-galaxy universe

Astronomers strongly opposed the idea that the spiral nebula was far from Earth in the early 20th century, when they observed that the spiral nebula was a fuzzy cloud cluster of cosmic vortex, which most astronomers believe is within the Milky Way. At the time, they agreed with the idea of a “single-galaxy universe” in which the Milky Way made up the entire universe. But some experts insist that spiral galaxies are far from Earth and are themselves entire galaxies like the Milky Way, or “island universes”. The hypothetical evidence against the island universe comes from measurements of the inner motion of the spiral, which would not have been possible if the spiral nebula had actually been far away. But by 1924, astronomer Edwin Hubble had confirmed that at least some of the spiral nebulae were actually island universes far from the Milky Way, which was just one of the galaxies in the ever-expanding universe. It is also pointed out that the measurement of the inner motion of the spiral nebula was difficult to make at that time, and with the continuous progress of astronomical survey technology, the previous astronomer’s idea of a “single-galaxy universe” proved to be wrong.

7, gravitational waves from the early universe

Microwave radiation pervades space, the afterglow of the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago, a popular theory that explains the details of the early universe, the expansion theory, predicting the light points that appear in microwave radiation, created by primitive gravitational waves from the early universe.

In 2014, scientists reported the discovery of accurate expected signals, confirming the existence of gravitational waves predicted by Einstein’s general theory of relativity and providing strong evidence to support the theory of expansion. It is doubtful, however, that the signals mentioned in the report are stronger than most expansion theories expect. To be sure, the team’s analysis does not correctly explain the distortion of data caused by dust in space, and although gravitational waves have been found several times in recent years in cosmic disaster events such as black hole collisions, the existence of primitive gravitational waves in the universe has not been detected.

8, neutrino speed exceeds the speed of light

Neutrino is a strange, small, light subatomic particle that scientists claimed in 2011 was so fast that it could even exceed the speed of light. When they measured the time it took for neutrino to travel from the CERN atomic accelerator near Geneva, Switzerland, to a probe in Italy, initial reports found that neutrino reached 60 nanational seconds earlier than the beam, and the news that neutrino velocity exceeded the speed of light quickly made headlines in major scientific media. But the scientific discovery has also aroused the suspicion of many physicists, contrary to Einstein’s theory that the speed of light cannot be exceeded. In 2012, when the team realized that a loose wire had caused the experiment’s clock to lose sync, sanity was restored, which explains why the experiment was wrong.

9, strange form of water

In the 1960s, Soviet scientists claimed to have created a new form of water in which ordinary water flushed into narrow pipes and became denser, with boiling points higher than normal boiling point and below normal freezing point temperatures. It seems that the water molecule must have condensed in some form to produce “polywater”. But in the late 1960s, chemists around the world began experimenting with “polymerized water”, which soon showed that the properties of “polymerized water” came from impurities in ordinary water.

10, strange forms of life

A 2010 study reported that a strange form of life in biometrics uses arsenic instead of phosphorus. This view raises many questions, but at first glance it seems to be well-founded. But an in-depth analysis reveals problems, and arsenic-based life never goes into textbooks. (Ye Tingcheng)