The bulge “reheating” before the Big Bang: Everything Crazy Is Gone

BEIJING, Dec. 3, Beijing time, according tomedia reports, the Big Bang theory, about 13.8 billion years ago, the universe occurred a big explosion; and all the physical forms we see today.

Big Bang Map

Physicists believe that just before the Big Bang pushed the universe into expanding orbits, the early universe went through a period of cosmic expansion that lasted less than a trillionth of a second. During the bulge, the low-temperature, uniform viscous matter expanded exponentially, and then the Big Bang continued, with the universe expanding at a slower rate and forming the early universe.

In recent years, a number of independent observations have supported the theory of the Big Bang and the cosmic swell. But the two processes are so so different that scientists have struggled to understand how they happened in succession.

Physicists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Kenyon Institute of Science and other research institutions recently simulated in detail an intermediate phase of the early universe that may have connected the universe to the Big Bang. The researchers call this phase “reheating” and occur at the end of the cosmic swell, transforming the already bloated, low-temperature, uniform matter into a super-high temperature and complex composition of “soup” in preparation for the start of the Big Bang.

“The reheating period after the boom created the conditions for the Big Bang, and in a sense it made the Big Bang real,” said David Kaiser, a professor of science history and physics at mIT. “

Kaiser and his colleagues detailed how various forms of matter interacted in this mess at the end of the bulge. Their simulations show that the extreme energy that drives the bulge is redistributed at the same rate in less time and somehow produces the conditions needed for the Big Bang to begin.

The researchers found that this extreme shift would be faster and more effective if quantum effects changed the way matter reacts to gravity at very high levels of energy, deviating from the way in which matter and gravity are interacted with in Einstein’s general theory of relativity. “This allows us to tell a complete story, from bloating to post-bursting, to the Big Bang, and beyond,” Kaiser said. We can say that this is a reasonable way to give the universe what it sees today. “

“Sync with yourself”

In the 1980s, Alan Guth, a physics professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, first proposed the theory of cosmic bulging. The theory predicts that the universe was originally an extremely tiny point of matter, perhaps only one billionth the size of a proton. This “dust” is full of super-energy material, and its energy is so great that internal pressure creates a repulsive gravitational pull – the driving force behind the bulge. Like the sparks on the fuses, this gravitational pull explodes the new universe outwards at an unprecedented rate, expanding the universe to nearly 10 to 25 times the original size (26 0s after 1) in less than a trillionth of a second.

Kaiser and his colleagues are trying to figure out what might have happened to the initial phase of reheating — the end of the universe and the transition period before the Big Bang. “The initial stage of reheating should be marked in a resonant state. A high-energy substance dominates, swinging back and forth in a vast space with itself, leading to the eruption of new particles,” Kaiser said. What we want to measure is how long it takes this resonance effect to break, and the resulting particles will disperse each other and achieve some kind of thermal balance, similar to the One Bang. “

Computer simulations show a large staggered structure on which they map multiple material forms and track how their energy and distribution change in space and time as certain conditions change. The initial conditions of the simulation are based on a specific bulge model, a set of predictions about how early cosmic matter might be distributed during the bulge.

Scientists chose this particular expansion model because its predictions are very consistent with high-precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background. Cosmic microwave background is the remnants of radiation emitted 380,000 years after the Big Bang, which is believed to contain traces of the period of bulge.

Adjustment of gravitational effects

The simulation tracks the behavior of two substances that may dominate during bulge, much like a particle recently observed in other experiments, the Higgs boson.

Before the simulation, the team fine-tuned the model’s description of gravity. The conventional matter we see today responds to gravity in the way that Einstein’s general theory of relativity predicts; matter with higher energy, such as material that may exist during bulge, behaves differently. The way they interact with gravity may be influenced by quantum mechanics, or at the atomic scale.

In Einstein’s general theory of relativity, the intensity of gravity is expressed as a constant, which physicists call “minimum coupling”, meaning that no matter what energy a particular particle is, it reacts to the gravitational effect at the intensity set by a common constant.

However, the interaction of matter with gravity is carried out in a slightly more complex way at the high energy predicted by cosmic bulge predictions. Quantum mechanical effects predict that the intensity of gravity changes in space and time when interacting with ultra-high-energy matter, a phenomenon known as “non-minimum coupling”.

Kaiser and his colleagues included a non-minimal coupling into the bulge model and observed how the distribution of matter and energy changes with quantum effects.

Finally, they found that the greater the effect of quantum mechanics-corrected gravitational effects on matter, the faster the universe transitions from low-temperature, uniform bloating to hotter, more-like Big Bang-specific substances. By adjusting this quantum effect, they can make this critical transition occur at 2 to 3 “e-fold”. e-fold refers to the time it takes for the universe to expand (approximately) by three times. In this case, they successfully simulated the process of reheating the universe to two to three times the time. In contrast, the bulge itself occurs at about 60 e-folds.

“Reheating is a crazy time, and everything is messed up, ” Kaiser said. ” We don’t know if this is the case, but this is the conclusion from the simulation, which is based on known physics. That’s what excites us. (Any day)

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