According to CCTV News Client reported on October 25, recently, by China’s independent research and development of the whole sea deep manned submersible jacket completed and through the overall integration unit acceptance, as the world’s largest 10,000 meters class manned module, after completion of acceptance, the submersible will enter the full assembly stage.
The development of deep-sea manned submersibles is the core task of “Deep Sea Key Technology and Equipment” of the 13th Five-Year Plan, and as a new generation of manned submersibles developed and built by our country, the maximum dive depth will exceed 10,000 meters, that is, the Mariana Trench, the deepest ocean in the world. Manned submersibles, the greatest characteristics and advantages are to take people down, as one of the core components of the submersible, the ball shell after 3 years of attack, construction and acceptance, its performance and indicators to meet the overall requirements.
Lei Jiafeng, deputy chief designer of the deep manned submersible, Lei Jiafeng: We know that in more than 10,000 meters of this manned submersible on the spherical shell, in the world, in our national project when there is no such a material program, we have more than three years of construction work to complete today’s task.
Liu Shuai, chief builder of the deep manned submersible, said: After the manned module is in place, the work behind us is mainly carried out in two lines. One is the installation of in-cabin equipment, the second is the outer cabin, around the manned cabin, the ball shell for the first buoyancy block, as well as the first lighting, video and video recording of the installation and integration of these devices.
The manned submersible ball shell can be dived by three people, there are three observation windows, the main driving window is directly in front, and the two sides of the window are used by passengers. After the person enters from the top, the hatch cover is closed and the ball shell becomes a completely closed environment. The ball case is both the “cab” of the submersible and the passenger’s only space for movement. The three adults were still very crowded in the case, which was less than 2 meters in diameter, and could only be in a semi-knee-and-half position, or stand at the same time.
It is understood that the submersible to and from the deep sea and seafloor operations, is expected to take more than 10 hours, divers and passengers to face in the long-term closed space for the physical test, as well as in the claustrophobic environment of the psychological test.
Simulation of 10,000 m deep-sea pressure ball shell to complete pressure test
The most important function of a manned submersible is to take people down into the deep sea, in the world’s deepest 10,000-meter Mariana Trench, where divers and scientists are travelling in cabins to withstand huge water pressures, and in order to verify their safety, experiments to simulate the deep-sea environment are required.
The large device, which is 4 meters high and has an internal diameter of 2 meters 8, is a pressure barrel that simulates a deep-sea environment of 10,000 meters.
Lei Jiafeng, deputy chief designer of the deep manned submersible: the ball shell should be placed in this pressure bucket, water to the pressure bucket, through this set of devices, so that this pressure to achieve 10,000 meters of pressure, so as to test the performance and quality of the ball shell under this pressure.
As the underwater pressure increases at a depth of 10,000 meters below the sea floor, the submersible’s spherical shell is subjected to pressure equivalent to the weight of a car, which is pressed on the nail cover of the thumb.
Ye Cong, chief designer of the deep manned submersible, said: In such a pressure environment, the ball shell does not look at its wall thickness is very thick, but also shrink deformation, we also found through the experiment the entire deformation it is elastic, indicating the safety of this submarine ball shell.
After a week of repeated stress tests, the manned crust has weathered a 10,000-meter deep-sea pressure test, and the final test results are deeper than when the actual dive. Not only that, through this test, the spherical shell also simulated the dive speed, sea floor stay time, etc. , for the submersible follow-up assembly and sea test to lay the foundation.
Deep sea full coverage made in China ‘titanium’
Titanium alloy materials used in manned spherical shells have been widely used in the aerospace field before, and researchers have found that titanium alloys are ideal for deep-sea equipment, with many advantages and uniqueness.
First of all, titanium has a powerful anti-corrosion function, almost non-corrosive properties greatly improve the durability of titanium alloy manned ball module.
Lei Jiafeng, deputy chief designer of the deep manned submersible, Lei Jiafeng: Titanium alloy material, also known as marine metal, is mainly its resistance to seawater corrosion, it put down in the sea water there is no sign of corrosion, after decades or even decades, twenty years.
These two metal blocks are test boards used by manned ball compartments to practice their hands before welding. Whether it is the material and thickness and the ball cabin, you can intuitively feel how thick, there is a must show, is this piece of metal, this is the human ball module welding melting after the formation of a splash, is a small piece of waste.
Such thin metal, it should be very brittle, but very resilient! This thick thin, can be seen the human ball module material is strong.
In addition, to overcome the pressure of the deep sea, titanium alloy not only high strength and elastic, can be under dive and floating process, to maintain the hardness is not deformed.
Manned ball shell limit design limit manufacturing
The 10,000-meter manned submersible, currently under construction, has the operational capacity to cover 100% of the world’s oceans, especially the manned ball shell, as one of the main structures of the submersible, can be said to be the limit design of the limit manufacturing.
Lei Jiafeng, deputy chief designer of the deep manned submersible, Lei Jiafeng: We know that this depth, ah, is the deepest trench on earth, reached a limit depth, in fact, also for the depth of the limit for the extreme design, the manufacturing process can also be said to be a limit manufacturing.
It is understood that 10,000 meters manned submersible son-in-sea submersible spree for underwater exploration, seabed exploration, seabed development and other tasks, in the near future, scientists will use it to explore the unknown world of the deep sea.
New transformation of scientific support ship to complete the total section lifting
Manned submersibles can not reach the ravine and dive, must be carried on the mother ship, it is understood that the 10,000 meters manned submersible will be equipped with a mother ship and a scientific support ship, at present, this specially equipped for 10,000 meters submersible protection ship is undergoing transformation, just completed the total section of lifting.
A newly remodeled scientific support vessel for the 10,000-meter submersible completed the total section lifting at the Mawei Shipyard in Fujian Province. The total section includes the scientist’s room, the diver’s room, the laboratory, the submersible workshop and so on, weighing 286 tons. In the field, the lifting process is like building blocks.
The total section in the land, the ship docked at the dock, the whole use of gantry crane for lifting, took 2 hours, originally only the deck of the hull “installed” on the total section, we have the familiar look of the ship. Tidal is one of many safety factors that seem to be a simple process.
Tang Gulashan, head of the 10,000-meter deep dive ship reform project: The tide will be related to the ship’s water, is that our dock water to catch in a very high tide to come in. If it’s too shallow, the ship may be bottomed up, so we’re going to get to a climax, and at the time of the high tide, the weather may not be very good, but it’s a coincidence that today’s location at the high tide is also very good today. So to our whole installation, security has brought a great convenience.
Huang Rutang, chairman of Fujian Mawei Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.: This ship has a full-range satellite positioning DPR system, in such a ship, the deep sea science has played a relatively large role.
As the “home” of the submersible at sea, the science support ship will transport the submersible, scientific research personnel, scientific equipment to the area where the Mariana Trench is located, and it is also a scientific research vessel to help the submersible and other large equipment dive and recover. At the same time, the ship is also a “deep-sea laboratory” in the ocean, through which biological samples collected by the submersible from the 10,000-meter-deep sea are transported back home.