According tomedia reports, when Oumuamua passed through the solar system in 2017, no one knew where the strange object came from, but this time, when such a thing happened for the second time, scientists believe they have some certainty about determining the origin of the “uninvited guest”. For the second time in history, astronomers have discovered that an object from outside the solar system is passing through the solar system, and this time researchers believe they know where the uninvited visitor came from.
Stars breaking into the solar system in 2017: O’Reain
Gennady Borisov, an amateur astronomy enthusiast from Crimea, used his telescope to discover the strange object on August 30th. It is thought to be a comet, officially numbered Comet 2I/Borisov, and the previous temporary number is C/2019 Q4.
The discovery is also the second case of an extrasolar object to have been discovered since 2017, and now, in a newly published paper, a Polish team has calculated the orbits of the newly discovered object. The object’s origin points to a double-red dwarf system about 13.15 light-years from the solar system, known as Kruger 60.
When you look back into the comet’s orbit, it will be about a million years ago when it reached a distance of about 5.7 light-years from the center of the Kruger 60 system at a speed of about 3.43 kilometers per second.
By human standards, this is already very high speed, almost the same as the speed of the X-43A hypersonic aircraft in the U.S. experiment. X-43A, however, does not escape the sun’s gravity and disengage from the solar system, and if the comet does travel at such a slow speed at a position less than 6 light-years from Kruger, it is likely to indicate that the object is not passing through the Kruger 60 system, but its source region. It has been orbiting this binary system for a long time, just as comets in the solar system orbit the sun, and based on the data available so far, the evidence that the comet originated in kruger 60 is quite convincing.
If there’s a comet flying between stars now, and then you want to know where it’s coming from, then you only need to confirm two things. First, is the comet very close to a planetary system? Because if it comes from there, its trajectory is bound to rendezvous with the system.
Although the distance of 5.7 light-years may not sound particularly close, after all, it is almost 357,000 times the distance between the Earth and the sun, but astronomically, this can still be considered “close”.
Second, comets usually leave a planetary system, which is ejected by gravitational disturbances from other large mass planets in the system.
In our solar system, it looks a bit like Jupiter”sintercept of a comet that is flying toward the sun by the gravitational pull of the sun and then “throws” it out of the solar system.
Such a projectile speed is limited, not possibly infinite, because the mass of the planet is capped, which determines the size of a planet’s ability to shoot out comets, such as Jupiter, which is very mass, but you can’t find a planet that is 100 times larger than Jupiter, because then, It becomes a star.
The planet’s upper mass limit limits the speed of comets ejected by the planet’s gravitational centbation. The authors of the study showed the comet’s low speed and proximity to Kruger 60, so it’s logical to speculate that it originated there.
Studying extrasolar comets is very exciting because it provides us with an opportunity to use the knowledge and tools associated with the study of objects in our solar system to study other distant “solar system” objects. Scientists will be able to use telescopes to make rather detailed observations of the surface of comet 2I/Borisov. They will be able to use the opportunity to see if the uninvited visitor is the same as the comet in our solar system, at least so far. Perhaps we’ll find that it will have some more unusual behavior, as it did in the previous “O-stranger”. This is the equivalent of studying a sample taken from deep space far afield, and under normal circumstances we simply do not have the ability to obtain such a sample because they are so far apart, coupled with their very small, very dark, no way to observe them at all. Therefore, such an opportunity is very rare.
All of this means that what we have learned from the study of Borisov’s comet will be knowledge of the distant Kruger 60 double red dwarf system. It is a relatively close star system, and no exoplanets have been found around it so far. In contrast, the source direction of the ostre seems to point to a brighter, more famous star: the Weaver. But the conclusion is deeply controversial, and many NASA scientists don’t consider the actress to be the “home” of the o.s. So if the results are confirmed, Comet Borisov will be the first interstellar object to be identified as a source.
However, the authors of the study themselves have been fairly cautious about the study’s conclusions, noting that more and more confirmation is needed. Astronomers are now stepping up their efforts to collect more data, and perhaps more data will accumulate, and people will find that the original calculations are wrong. If so, it means the comet may have other origins elsewhere.
Relevant research papers have been published online paper preprinted on this website arXiv.