People often talk about “virus” color change, but there are some viruses, because it will stimulate the body’s immune system to fight back, or indirectly affect the pathogenicity of other viruses, but yin and yang wrong to help humans overcome certain diseases. In the fight against cancer, man kindness is no longer alone. Only this time, “friendly army” is a virus.
Scientists at the prestigious Cancer Immunology Center at Massachusetts General Hospital in the United States recently discovered “godmates” who help humans fight cancer. In a recent article in the leading academic journal Nature, they said they found that some low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) indirectly protects people from skin cancer. “This is the first time that common viruses have been found in experimental models and humans, and this benefit may be beneficial to cancer protection,” the researchers said. “
In the long evolutionary history of mankind, viruses, like humans, are masters of the earth. For a long time, people talk about “virus” color change, however, there are some viruses, because it stimulates the immune system to fight back, or indirectly affect the pathogenicity of other viruses, but yin and yang wrong to help humans overcome certain diseases. However, due to the limitations of technology and cognition, human beings are not deep enough to know these familiar and unfamiliar guests.
80% of women will be infected with HPV
Cervical cancer has always been a huge problem for women’s health, with data showing that 99.7% of cervical cancers are caused by HPV infection.
“Human papillomavirus, as the name implies, is a type of virus that causes the skin and mucous membranes to undergo hyperplasia, lesions often resemble nipple protrusions. “Yan Yan, deputy director and associate professor of pathogen biology at Nanjing Medical University’s School of Basic Medicine. To date, HPV has isolated more than 200 subtypes, with different subtypes causing different clinical manifestations. Clinically, according to the different carcinogenicity of HPV, it is divided into high-risk and low-risk type.
Among them, high-risk HPV has HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, 39, 52, 58 and so on, mostly related to cervical cancer, cancer, oral cancer and other malignant tumors. In cervical cancer tissue, HPV-16 is detected about 50%-60%, HPV-18 is about 20%. High-risk HPV persistence is often highly correlated with pre-cervical lesions and cervical cancer, and the main mechanism of HPV-induced cell carcinoma is to integrate viral DNA into the host chromosome, and viral cancer-causing proteins E6 and E7 also play an important role in tumor development.
Yan said low-risk HPV infections often cause skin warts. For example, HPV-1, 2, 3, 4 infections can produce warts and flat warts, HPV-6, 11 can cause genital warts, such as warts.
There are many ways to spread HPV. Cheng Wenjun, chairman of the gynaecological oncology branch of Jiangsu Provincial Medical Association, said that HPV spread through sexual transmission, medical-derived infection, indirect contact and other means, “80% of women will be more or less infected with HPV virus, but not infected with HPV will cause disease, low-risk HPV like influenza virus, for people with strong immunity, These viruses are all one-off, like hitting you and running away, but if the body’s immunity goes down, they are integrated into the genes and re-producing cells that cause disease. For example, the body has kidney disease and other basic metabolic diseases, it is possible to be ‘attacked’. Cheng Wenjun said.
Skin cancer isn’t all the “wrong” of the virus.
Currently, there are some HPV subtypes that may cause cancer but have not yet been confirmed. Studies have suggested that the widespread presence of beta-type HPV infection in the population may be associated with the risk of some malignant skin cancers. However, in the article in the journal Nature, the researchers’ results were contrary to past assumptions. Experiments using mouse models showed that mice with a complete immune system that was naturally immune to HPV, as well as those that were immune to t-cells, were able to fight skin cancer when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or chemicals known to cause skin cancer.
“When the HPV virus enters the mice, the peptide molecules of HPV, also known as viral proteins, act like an alien invader, induce T-cells to produce an immune response. In this study, the viral activity in skin cancer cells was lower than that of normal cells, which meant that activated T-cells were effective in attacking early skin cancer cells, which was not the same as the researchers had previously thought, but rather a windfall. Yan explained.
Animal experiments alone were not enough to be persuasive, and the researchers also tested human skin cancer samples, analyzing the activity of 25 low-risk HPVs and found that viral activity and viral load in skin cancer cells were significantly lower than those of adjacent normal skin, which meant that the body had strong immune options for viral-positive tumor cells. The researchers explain that those with suppressed immune systems have a significantly higher risk of skin cancer because of a loss of immunity, not the carcinogenic effects of HPV.
Based on these findings, the researchers suggest that “developing a vaccine based on T-cells that target symbiotic HPV may provide an innovative way to enhance the skin’s antiviral immunity and help prevent warts and skin cancer in high-risk groups.” “
Humans can live in harmony with many viruses.
The study of the low-risk HPV virus has opened a window into how to live in harmony with the virus.
In fact, the same virus, some viruses can affect the body’s immune system, indirectly affect the pathogenicity of other viruses, this “negative positive” relationship chain, but will benefit some people.
Yan said studies have shown that when the combined infection with the hepatitis E virus (HGV), the process of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection slows down and the survival of patients is relatively prolonged.
Late last month, Chinese scientists wrote in the journal Nature Immunology that they were the first to discover symbiotic viruses in the gut that can inhibit damage to intestinal tissue and inflammation.
The intestinal immune system consists mainly of intestinal epithelial lymphocytes (IEls), inherent lymphocytes, and pyl nodes. “When we eat, we eat a lot of antigens and bacteria, and IEL is present in the intestinal epithelial cells, so it plays an important role in fighting intestinal infections. Without IEL, the body’s immune and barrier functions are reduced and the risk of diseases such as intestinal infections is higher. Zhou Rongbin, a professor of biology and medicine at the University of Science and Technology of China, said that when they injected antiviral drugs into mice, the IEL in the intestines of mice decreased. This means that reducing symbiotic viruses can lead to a significant reduction in IEL.
Further studies have found that once macrophages in the intestines are identified as RNA produced by symbiotic viruses, antigens can be induced to transmit cells and produce leukocyte interlocutory-15, thus maintaining the survival and proliferation of lymphocytes in the intestinal epithelial. “If the intestinal symbiotic virus is unbalanced, it can also cause enteritis, bowel cancer and other diseases. Zhou Rongbin said.
Let the body reserve the “army” to fight the virus
However, because of the limitations of detection technology and cognitive level, human understanding of symbiotic viruses is still “flowers in the fog”. Zhou Rongbin introduced that the human gut, lungs, skin and other tissues exist a large number of symbiotic microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. These symbiotic microorganisms have become part of the human body and play an important role in many normal physiological functions and the occurrence of almost all diseases. However, almost all studies in the past have focused on symbiotic bacteria, and there is a great lack of research on the pathological and physiological functions of symbiotic viruses.
“In the case of enterostic symbiotic viruses, there are still very few identifiable symbiotic viruses, and little is known about their function, characteristics and role in health maintenance and disease. However, Zhou Rongbin believes that in the next 5 to 10 years, the study of symbiotic viruses may usher in rapid development.
Now that we know the existence of symbiotic virus, but in the short term but helpless for it, how can human beings get along with symbiotic virus?
“The virus will look at people to eat, for different individuals, different immune states, will have different results. As long as the usual attention to improve their immunity, so that the body at any time to reserve a fight with the virus ‘army’, you can be in a natural balance with the virus, and may even use these microorganisms for human health. Yan said.
Cheng Wenjun believes that with the virus, prevention is greater than cure. “If you drink, smoke, stay up late, anxiety, stress, immunity is poor, then the virus in the body will ‘change face’, and if you maintain a good lifestyle and mentality, the virus will have no chance.” (Golden Feng)