Cancer has the characteristics of cheating and avoiding immune cells, growing and spreading over time, but in some cases the immune system remains the best defense against cancer. Researchers at the QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medicine in Australia recently proposed a new method of conducting anti-testing in mice tested. T-cells and NK-cells are known to act like infantry men of the immune system. They are able to search for and attack pathogens that invade the body.
(From: Cancer Discovery, via New Atlas)
However, the activity of these two cells is also regulated by other immune cells — such as the invariance T-cells (MAIt) associated with mucous membranes — that tell them when to attack and withdraw.
In the new study, QIMR researchers found that activating MAIT cells prevents T-cells and NK-cells from attacking tumors, which the tumor seems to know.
(Research map – 1)
Cancer cells are known to be able to actively activate MAIT cells through MR1 molecules on their surface. “Cancer cells have effectively established their own defenses to escape being attacked by the immune system and surviving,” said senior researcher Michele Teng.
Studies have shown that MR1 activates MAIT cells, which in turn keeps anti-cancer T-cells and NK-cells from actively attacking. Although it is known that the immune system has other reactive regulatory cells, this is the first evidence of the working mechanism of MAIT cells.
(Research map – 2)
After understanding this mechanism, or the birth of new immunotherapy. By blocking MR1 antibodies, the team said, they tested the idea in mice.
It turns out that it does prevent MAIT cells from being activated to increase the attack power of T-cells and NK-cells, ultimately slowing the growth and expansion of cancer.
(Research map – 3)
Although not necessarily effective for every cancer, it can at least be effective against the types of cancer associated with the MR1 molecule, and it also means that it can be used to screen which patients do not respond to this immunotherapy.
Next, the researchers will try to conduct similar experiments on the human body. But the premise is to determine which human tumors are COR1-related. Details have been published in the recent lying journal Cancer Discovery.