Nearly two months have passed since the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics went on to award three astrophysicists, and time has been on the move, but the pace of exploration of the universe cannot stop for a moment. It can be said that the 21st century is destined to be an extraordinary era in the history of astronomy. Buddha has the cloud “stomina mustard”, the vast universe all over everything, swallowing the sun and the moon, giving birth to our small human beings.
When we marvel at the incredibleness of the universe, there is such a group of tireless explorers, do not ask about the floating things, from ancient times to the present, from east to west, day and night. They stargazing, pushing calendars, boldquestioning, and studying the aoly of their universe. Who says mustard can’t be a mustamy? Small human beings, why can’t you understand the laws of all things? You see, the universe is there waiting for us to discover. The ancient language “up and down the quartet of yu, to ancient times to the present And present”, where do we come from? To this day, maybe we have some definite answers!
Where does the universe come from? “God” said, “Have light!” “In fact, scientific research has shown that our current universe comes from a big bang!
We call it the “Big Bang Theory” for the time being, and there are several ancestors in it. First of all, George Gamov, a Russian-American, known in the scientific community as the “father of cosmology”.
On April 1, 1948, the journal Physical Review published a paper written by Gamov and others. As it was April Fool’s Day, it was interesting to add a person to the list of authors who had not contributed anything to the paper, Hans Bate, and took the name “beta”. But student Robert Herman rejected the teacher’s suggestion to take a name, so the paper, in fact, was less than one author, Herman, and one author, Hans Bate, who was not involved in the paper. It is this article that thinks that our current universe comes from the Big Bang.
Later, Gamov wrote a separate paper on the big bang theory, which was published in the journal Nature. But it wasn’t long before students Ralph Alfie and Robert Herman discovered something was wrong and published an error-correction paper in the journal Nature. In this paper, it introduces his latest research results – the existence of the cosmic microwave background. According to the duo’s estimates, the temperature was about 5K (absolute), but the academic community did not pay attention to cosmology for a long time.
Fifteen years later, however, another group of people interested in the Big Bang emerged. The group had a leader named Robert Dick. James Peebles was his student, and the two co-authored a paper in 1964. In this article, the existence of the cosmic microwave background is predicted again, and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background is about 3K. But there is no mention of the Study of the Gamov team 15 years ago, perhaps as old as it was, when Dick’s team forgot what it had done before. In fact, in scientific research work, if the predecessor has done research, the latter do it again, in the writing of the paper should have a reference.
Cosmic microwave radiation background (Image Source: NASA website)
The “theoretical prophecy” of the cosmic microwave background. Then the next step is to search for cosmic microwave background radiation, Robert Dick was constantly applying to his superiors for research funds, but still a step slow. It’s a shame!
The antenna used by Arnaud Penzias and Robert Wilson to discover the 3k cosmic microwave radiation background (Picture: Wikipedia)
As it turns out, in 1965, Arnold Penzias and Robert Wilson were blessed by the lucky goddesses in dealing with radio telescope noise, and they could not have imagined the lingering background noise that had been lingering in their minds, which turned out to be cosmic microwave background radiation on the altar! In the end, Penzias and Wilson won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physics. Meanwhile, Robert Dick’s team lost hands with the Nobel Prize, but thankfully, cosmology has since begun to pick up and more and more people are in the public eye.
Today, when Professor Peebles holds the Nobel Prize and stands on the Nobel podium, time has quietly passed 41 years, the teacher Robit Dick has been in the long river of the years with the world to sleep, but to explore the universe, to unlock the unknown fire, after decades of wind and rain, has been shining a light! “Cosmology has changed from speculative theoretical research to a relatively rigorous scientific discipline, ” the Nobel Prize comments roughly say.
Cosmic Evolution Map (Photo Source: Wikipedia)
After introducing some of the old history, now really come to understand the mouth of the “Big Bang.” First of all, it must be said that almost all of our theoretical frameworks of cosmology are based on assumptions and reasoning, and that conclusions are preserved only if proven in practice.
Just as cosmic microwave background radiation has been a good proof that the universe we live in now comes from an explosion at least 13.8 billion years ago, but with the update of equipment, the new discoveries of experiments, the revision of the theory, we understand the explosion may not be in a simple sense similar to the kind of explosion we set off firecrackers in the New Year.
We know that William Thomson, the first Earl of Kelvin at the end of the 19th century, said, “The physical building has been completed, and all that remains is the work of grooming.” “Who would have thought that it was the two dark clouds of the 20th century that led to Einstein’s theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. (The Michaelson-Murray experiment led to the “Ether” statement of disillusionment, blackbody radiation and “uv disaster”)
William Thomson (Photo: Baidu)
Also in the 20th or 21st century physics in theory and experiments there are several dark clouds to be solved: the contradiction between quantum mechanics and gravity; There are, of course, other dark clouds. But in the end the question doesn’t escape the philosophical ultimate question “Who am I?” Where am I from? Where am I going? “
In a series of discoveries in astronomy in the 20th century, people began to look into the exploration of dark matter and dark energy. The discovery of the High Red Shift supernova in 1998 led to the realization that our universe seemed to have expanded slowly for some time ago, due to the influence of gravity, and then dark energy exceeded gravity, stepping on the cosmic accelerator, and the universe expanded at an accelerated rate. In November and December 1997, two international research teams, one based at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California, AND the other at the Mount Stonlo And Seding Springs Observatory in Australia. Both teams observed the IA supernova and spent about a decade trying to verify that the universe slowed down, but the results showed that the expansion of the universe did not decelerate, but accelerated.
In 1980, Alan Guth, an American theoretical scientist, proposed the theory of cosmic bulging in the study of vision and flatness in the thermal Big Bang cosmology. It indicates that the universe was very early, there was a bulge. The first proposed bloating model has serious problems of the expansion exit mechanism, and it is now widely accepted and adopted as the “slow roll-out bloating model”.
Alan Guth (Photo: Baidu)
Cosmic bulging model, in short, the c in about 10-35-10-32s within the universe has a bulge, phase change, the universe does not expand according to the law of H(t) t1/2, but according to the exponential law of bulging:
Regarding the physical basis of the theory of bulging, people first separate the vacuum phase change from the grand unity, and introduce the scale field with self-action, that is, the bulging field (inflation). This means that the bulge here is caused by a vacuum. What vacuum is caused? Without hearing correctly, the state with the lowest energy density in the field theory is called the base state or vacuum, and vacuum is not what we have previously understood as nothing.
It is worth saying whether there is a self-action scale field in nature, or is not clear, in this sense, “bulging theory” is a tentative study. We further understand the following two images:
Early on, we knew that the universe was in a state of high temperature and density, and at the same time the universe was in a physical environment like a vacuum field, so when did the mechanism of influence of this physical environment trigger? As we all know, in the process of the explosion, the temperature is reduced, the size becomes larger, must not be related to the temperature escape, you can use a temperature to represent the timescale of this mechanism. That is, the characteristic temperature TC (TC represents a temperature timescale with the same free energy for a true and false vacuum).
How do you understand it?
Before we have a certain concept of vacuum is not nothing, vacuum is a certain amount. In the medium temperature T is higher than TC, the vacuum field is in a vacuum state, the lowest energy, with our simple high school mathematical knowledge to understand, to vacuum field free as the ordinate, vacuum field as horizontal coordinates, its mathematical image can be understood as the simplest even function image, only a minimum point, and the extreme point is the coordinate origin. At this point the standard model is still the expansion of the immediate universe is proportional to the half-time side of time, regardless of the role of the vacuum field.
When the temperature approaches the TC so that it is equal to the TC, the vacuum free energy changes (it is a function relationship between temperature and field). Using quantum mechanics, vacuum free energy is now in a simple state, a vacuum free energy corresponds to two original vacuum field values, to just the mathematical image to understand, at this time there are three same minimum points, vacuum field free energy (even the same coordinates), we call the state of this time true and false vacuum state.
At T-lt;tc, the ordinates of the very small point sits further, which is less than 0, which means that the energy has dropped from 0 to lower. Learn excess submechanics, should have a certain impression of energy-level leap, along with the change of temperature, vacuum state leap, phase change, then there will be energy released, energy will be on the cosmic medium, so there is the previously said rapid expansion of the universe (like stepping on a foot throttle), we call the state of this time vacuum too cold, The total density of the universe comes from the contribution of vacuum. slt; p”” ” ” “
When the temperature of the universe drops to a certain level, the theory suggests that the transition from an overcooled vacuum to a symmetrical lyse vacuum is always to occur. With the release of the vacuum phase phase variable latent heat, the gas eventually reaches the thermal balance. At this point the temperature is much higher than the pre-phase temperature, but according to the law of energy conservation, or slightly lower than TC, we call the universe at this time a reheating process. After reheating, the vacuum can be affected and ignored, after which the cosmic expansion law reverts to its original, h(t) t1/2.
Theoretical studies show that vacuum lasts 10-33s, while the cosmic scale factor R increases by 1043 times.
So how does it solve this vision problem, and it is very intuitive to tell us that without bulging, the observable universe would have been much larger than the horizon in the early universe, so that different regions of the present universe could not be evenly interacted. If there is a bulge, the observable universe today is actually within the same horizon before the bulge, and different regions can achieve uniform temperature and density through physical processes. Today’s observable universe rushes out of the horizon during the bulge, but gradually falls back into the horizon after the bulge, ensuring the uniformity of the microwave background radiation in all directions.
(Photo Source: Cosmic Physics Handout)
The standard cosmic model is premised on two assumptions, the first: to see the universe as a uniform, all-in-one (space view) medium, and the second: the dynamic behavior of the cosmic medium is subject to general relativity. But it faces four problems: “Big Bang Singularity, Vision, Flatness, Magnetic Unipolar Problem.” “
The “cosmic bulge theory” reasonably explains the last three questions, but there is still some distance to be found in the explanation of the odd spot problem. Fortunately, the yusheng model in “JBD Gravitational Theory” can explain the oddity problem.
According to standard cosmology, our universe must have a beginning, which we call the odd spot, its energy density and temperature infinite. The consequence of this state under general relativity is that the curvature of space-time becomes infinite and the existing laws of physics are completely ineffective. The model of the self-produced universe, on the other hand, is a good way to get around the odd ity, pointing out that the universe originated from a limited Einstein’s static universe rather than a wonder. But “God” said “Have light!” “It’s going to blow up!” So at some point, under the disturbance of various ups and downs, the static universe enters the bulge phase and then connects with our now-known Big Bang theory. With such a view, a lot of subjective colours may be added, right or wrong, and the question that comes with it is crucial that Einstein’s static model of the universe remain sit still for a long time. If the static model is highly unstable and flammable and explosive, the results are self-evident. Today, “Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) Gravity Theory” has well met the requirement that its material composition is ideal fluid and scale field, and the results of the calculations show that, regardless of whether the disturbance is uniform, there is such a stable solution that can be exited from a stable preliminary Einstein state. into the stage of bulging.
Now we can follow the classic theory of a description of the Big Bang:
Cosmic Evolution Map (Photo: NASA/WAP Team)
As t approaches 0, the temperature density of the universe tends to infinity, which is called the odd spot puzzle. Experience has shown that infinity is often the result of extending infinity beyond the scope of use in physics, and the following is the guess: the classical universe is transformed by the quantum universe, and the gravitational field and other physical fields are essentially quantum (but there are no experiments to show that this is true, and there are many tentative theories of the quantumization of classical gravitational fields, But it’s not hard to imagine that if the quantum of the gravitational field is established, the energy from quantum gravity is corresponding to Planck energy, corresponding to planck time, about 10-43s. The expansion of the classical universe we call today is from this moment, so our classical universe can be guessed to have been transformed by the quantum universe, as in hawking’s big bang cover, as follows, “Our universe is the product of early quantum ups and downs.”
When t from 10-43s to 10-4s, Cosmic temperature T from 1019GeV to 0.1GeV, the classical universe is in the particle cosmology stage, at this time the universe quark, light son and other normative particles composition, but for the energy higher than 103GeV, particle physics has not yet been mastered, so according to the current research, the process of the stage has a vacuum phase change caused by the expansion, the production of positive and negative weight son, The formation of cold and dark matter, and the eventual quark into a strong man, etc. The study of these processes is tentative and needs to be verified by particle experiments and astronomical observations.
At t 10-4s, the cosmic medium completes the phase change from quark to the strongest, after which there are protons and neutrons in the cosmic gas, the number density is as low as 9 to 10 orders of magnitude than photons, followed by the synthesis of the nucleus.
When t is greater than 1s, the temperature T drops below 1Mev, the universe enters the nuclear physics category, its physical laws are very clear, cosmology theory begins to have a reliable basis, in t from 3 to 30 minutes, the original nuclear synthesis, and then we the universe began to achieve the synthesis of chemical elements, mainly hydrogen, helium, containing very little lithium, molybdenum, boron.
At t is about 1012s, the physical law is clearer, the chemical elements of the universe from the plasma state to the neutral atom, when the temperature drops below, about, the nucleus and free electrons combine into a neutral atom, the cosmic medium becomes a neutral atomic gas. Hot photons have since lost their thermal collision objects and remained as background radiation photons, which is known as cosmic microwave background radiation.
So how did the structure of the universe emerge today? We can understand that the cosmic model is only its zero-stage approximation, and the seed of structure formation may be the very early cosmic, physical-based stage of the tiny density disturbance. The earliest knots occurred about a billion years ago, and then the appearance of the structure began to change over time.
The vastness of the universe, the road to explore the universe can not be stopped for a moment, and finally to “the road is long and its repair, I will go up and down and seek” to seek common.