Every year since 1999, the MIT Technology Review has selected the most innovative and influential scientists, researchers, and tech entrepreneurs under the age of 35, who are: This is what many people know: MIT Science and Technology Review, “35 People Under 35 Worldwide” (MIT Techn ology Review Innovators Under 35).
Original title: MIT Science and Technology Review, China Science and Technology Youth Hero list released! 35 finalists covering the world’s most cutting-edge science and technology
Looking back over the years, these young people, who were under the age of 35 at the time, and many of them, changed the world we now perceive.
In 1999, for example, the MIT Technology Review selected Mark Anderson, the creator of Netscape’s web browser, and now a world-renowned emerging technology investor, and that year we also chose Jerry Yang, who founded Yahoo became the world’s largest Internet company. They were all under 30 years old that year.
In 2002, the MIT Technology Review selected Larry Page and Sergey Brin, two young entrepreneurs who had just started their business for two or three years, to make the Google empire we see today. The same year was also named by Lisa Su, a semiconductor scientist at IBM who, 20 years later, led AMD to a new peak as CEO of global CPU giant AMD.
On the 2007 list, a name appeared on the list, Mark Zuckerberg, who founded Facebook, when he was only 23.
In 2008, we ushered in a new era of emerging technology, with the emergence of artificial intelligence for more than half a century, and this year, Andrew Ng, who is now dedicated to the promotion of AI landing application education, was the winner of the 2008 list.
In 2014, there was a huge leap forward in genetic science research, and the advent of CRISPR gene editing technology was the starting point for an unprecedented scientific transformation, considered to be the world’s top CRISPR researcher, and Zhang Feng, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who has accelerated the development of global gene editing research. That’s one of those who made the list this year.
Many people will ask: How do you define an era? The answer to this question may lie in this group of young innovators under the age of 35, whose innovation, curiosity, persistence, inspiration, courage will tell us in advance what the world ahead will look like, because, behind every IU35, there is a possibility of opening up a new era.
The 2017 MIT Technology Review, in collaboration with DeepTech, an exclusive partner in China, will launch The MIT Technology Review China “35 People Under 35” and host the EmTech China Global Emerging Technology Summit in January 2018 Announced the first China’s “35 people under 35 years of age for scientific and technological innovation.” In 2018, we did not forget to start, and more efforts to hope that this list can send out more energy, so in January 2019, after a nine-month intensive selection, announced the second China “under 35 years of science and technology innovation 35 people.”
As insisted on the past 20 years, the MIT Science and Technology Review’s list of “35 young people under 35 years of age” is not to pursue well-known stars, but to make more scientists, scientists, tech entrepreneurs worthy of being seen, more people to know, understand, support, This in turn allows more energy to change the future of the world.
This year marks the 120th anniversary of the launch of the MIT Science and Technology Review, and the 3rd “35 People under 35” China List was announced at the EmTech China Global Emerging Technology Summit on December 14, 2019.
In the 2018 MIT Science and Technology Review’s “35 People under 35” China, we see the rise of more innovative scientific forces, as well as more interdisciplinary, cross-cutting, and more in-intent scientific innovations for landing applications, including artificial intelligence research and applications, New materials, new energy, life sciences, biotechnology, autonomous driving and other different fields.
In the 2019 list, although the “entrepreneur” is missing, but we have seen many of the winners who adhere to the scientific mission in areas with industrialization potential, but also see more scientists scattered in top overseas academic institutions, with their own initial commitment to achieve world-class achievements in scientific research results. More than half of these winners have achieved world-class breakthrough research and discoveries.
Here’s a list of winners of the 2019 China Under 35 S.C. (in initials):
Position: Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Princeton University
Reason for winning: She uses deep learning for a range of natural languages to address important issues, helping machines gain knowledge and answer questions better.
In the use of neural networks / deep learning technology to solve the problem of natural language understanding, the winner is one of the earliest explorers, in this direction has a number of pioneering research, covering a number of core technical issues, including and not limited to the earliest application of neural network model stoking tasks to information extraction, creating the direction of applying deep learning to dependent syntax analysis, the establishment of a large-scale open source external knowledge base to ask and answer problems of the early open domain question and answer system.
The winner of a series of research results in the direction of machine reading and knowledge extraction, while helping the academic community to open up new direction, but also in the industry has been a large number of applications and verification. Based on these results, machines are gaining better and real ability to answer questions, rather than simply returning document search results.
Position: Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, Santa Barbara
Reason for the award: He is the world’s first heterogeneous fusion brain chip “Sky Movement” lead designer, using self-driving bicycles to verify the feasibility of universal intelligence.
As the main designer, the winner completed the development of the world’s first heterogeneous fusion brain chip “Sky Movement”. The chip differs from the traditional intelligent solution, which can support both pulsed neural networks and artificial neural networks, and creatively integratecomputer-oriented machine learning with brain science-oriented neural morphology computing on the same platform.
In real driverless bicycle scenarios, SkyCore validates its ability to solve perception, tracking, barrier crossing, barrier avoidance, automatic control, voice understanding, and autonomous decision-making scenarios, representing more than 10 times the energy efficiency ratio.
“Sky movement” for the future of artificial intelligence and brain science research has brought a new computing platform, or will become the next generation of artificial intelligence and brain science in scientific research as an important infrastructure, for the realization of universal artificial intelligence provides a new possibility.
Position: Researcher, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Reason for the award: He has done pioneering work in the field of synthetic microbiome, providing key tools for microbiome transformation and prediction.
The winners focused on basic research and application in the disciplines of population ecology, microbial evolution and biophysical interdisciplinary research. The ecological and evolutionary mechanism of microorganisms through high-throughput experiments, bioinformatics, statistical models and so on provides an important scientific basis for understanding and transforming microbiomes and inhibiting the evolution of microbial resistance.
To develop the field of synthetic microbiome, build quantitative biology models and synthetic biology tool platforms, and provide key tools for microbiome transformation and prediction. These pioneering work has great commercialization prospects, or will become China’s related medical, agricultural areas in the forefront of the world’s important weight.
Position: Associate Professor, Tsinghua University
Award reason: She put forward a new generation of intelligent light field imaging theory and technology, break through the limits of the human eye, for a wide range of dynamic scenes of visual perception and processing, to achieve the machine to see the whole, see the clear and see the truth, become an important weapon of the smart city.
The winners creatively put forward the new principle of structural adaptive light field imaging, established a new model of adaptive light field perception of large scene, developed a 1-billion-pixel array image imaging equipment and intelligent processing platform, broke through the inherent contradiction of wide field of view and high resolution in large-scale dynamic scene imaging in theory and technology, and established an intelligent analysis processing platform. Makes the machine no longer “snooping on the leopard” or “seeing the trees and not the forest” in complex real-life scenarios such as smart cities.
Further, the winner sbuilt the international first billion-pixel dynamic large scene data set PANDA, taking the lead in the detection and identification of 10,000 objects under a single image, the analysis of the relationship between thousands of object groups, and the long-range tracking of changes at a hundred-fold scale. This dynamic large scene data set provides an important foundation for the study of visual algorithms, and is expected to achieve a greater breakthrough.
Position: Young Researcher, Fudan University
Reason for winning: He starts with the chemical foundation and solves a variety of problems in energy conversion. At the same time, it provides basic material solutions for energy systems that can be used for practical process and equipment.
Every advance in human history has been energy-related. With the increasing demand for energy, the entire energy industry is facing a new revolution, renewable energy, distributed energy, low-carbon clean energy and so on become the way forward.
Starting from the point of view of chemical foundation, the winners developed a new and inexpensive catalyst with higher activity and stability than traditional precious metal-based catalysts using inorganic nanocompounds and carbon nanotube composites. For the first time, he created a low-cost, high-efficiency electrolytic hydro-hydrogen system with 1.5 volts, providing strong support for the hydrogen energy economy in the future.
The winneralso also connected solar cells with the resulting electrolytic water systems, designing low-cost solar-to-hydrogen photosolutions. In addition, the winners of the battery research on the replacement of lithium with aluminum breakthrough aluminum anode and graphite positive in the ionic liquid, forming a fast reversible oxidation reduction reaction of ultra-fast aluminum ion battery.
In the field of coal-based energy and chemical industry, the winners used hydrogen bonds to regulate and stabilize the reaction intermediates, and improved the electro-transformation selectivity of CO to C2 products by nearly an order of magnitude, providing a new idea for the distributed chemical system supported by renewable energy.
Position: Assistant Professor, Department of Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Reason for winning: She uncovers the hidden interactions between the immune system, inflammation and tumors, combining theoretical breakthroughs with new clinical targets.
The winners focused on the function and mechanism of the immune system in tissue damage, metabolic diseases and cancer. Its study found that the immune system through cell damage mediated by a number of signaling pathways, explaining the role of inflammatory small bodies in the intestines, diabetes and other diseases.
At the same time, it is found that lung cancer will change the type and number of bacteria in the lungs, stimulate the immune system to produce an inflammatory environment, and then help tumor cells to multiply, accelerate cancer deterioration, and reveal a new mechanism for the interaction of local flora and immune system to promote lung cancer.
These findings not only bring theoretical breakthroughs to the basic research of many major diseases, but also provide new and important targets for clinical treatment.
Position: Founder and CEO of Shannon Technology
Reason for the award: He applies deep learning, especially deep-enhanced learning, to conversation systems, so that machines are no longer as single and boring as they used to communicate with people.
The winner was one of the first explorers to apply deep learning (especially intensive deep learning) to a dialogue system in natural language processing.
Based on the work of the winners, the challenges of multiple rounds of dialogue and personalized answers in the dialogue system have been solved to a certain extent. The neural network-based mutual information dialogue model proposed by the winners significantly improved the quality of the generative dialogue system.
In addition, the enhanced learning, counter-learning dialogue model, and the work of the personalized dialogue system of characters have been widely used in academia and industry.
Position: Researcher, Westlake University
Reason for winning: For the first time, he has achieved the precise design of the three-dimensional structure of a cross-membrane protein.
Protein design is an important branch of structural biology and a new frontier, which requires multidisciplinary cross-integration of biophysics, biochemistry, synthetic biology and computational biology.
By computational biology, the winners simulated the interaction of protein polar residues in the membrane environment, designed a three-dimensional structure of protein that can stabilize the presence of the membrane environment, and carried out a series of experiments on recombinant expression, biochemical properties determination, three-dimensional structure analysis and so on.
Using this method, the winners successfully designed a variety of transmembrane proteins with extremethermal stability, and demonstrated that computer-designed protein sequences can be spontaneously folded into a structure consistent with the design model in the membrane environment.
For the first time in the world, the study has achieved the precise design of multiple three-dimensional structures of transmembrane proteins, paving the way for the design of transmembrane proteins with new structures and new functions, and potentially has far-reaching implications for important areas such as vaccine design, DNA nanoporous sequencing, and artificial cell signal loop design.
Position: Professor, Hunan University
Reason for winning: He wants to make the ideal semiconductor device to challenge Moore’s Law to usher in Sugon.
Using low-dimensional material research, the winners developed a preparation method that combines metal and semiconductors with Vanderwa force, which can help to improve transistor performance in general. He also experimented with the ideal diode close to Schottky-Mott’s law, which has guided the semiconductor industry for years but is difficult to achieve.
The paper on the preparation method, published in the journal Nature, became a hot article in the top 0.1% of ESI statistical references. In addition, the outlook paper based on this Vanderwa integration technology is published in the journal Nature and is featured in the 150th Anniversary Special issue of Nature.
On the industrial side, the winners also assisted in the development of flexible electrodes, a metal-semiconductor interface connected by weak Vanderwa forces, which is not damaged by stretching, so it can be implanted in human stentos, or to collect biotele signals and pressures.
Position: Assistant Professor, Rice University
Award-winning reason: He has worked on clean energy storage and conversion technology and has achieved a number of results in the development of high-performance, inexpensive catalyst materials.
The winners developed a new solid-state ion conductor electrolytic cell that can use clean energy such as solar and wind energy to convert the plant’s carbon dioxide greenhouse gases directly and efficiently into high-purity ethanol, forchloric acid and other liquid fuels.
The “artificial photosynthesis” system developed by the winners and the metal single-atom catalyst, whose conversion efficiency between solar energy and chemical energy is one to two orders of magnitude higher than that of photosynthesis in nature. The related results open up a new way for the future application of energy catalytic field, which is expected to make the chemical industry move away from fossil fuels and embrace clean energy, which is of great significance for greenhouse gas emission reduction and synthesis of chemical raw materials.
Position: Researcher, Zhejiang University
Reason for winning: To give doctors a better view, she constantly refreshes the limits of medical imaging resolution and imaging speed.
In the past ten years, the winners have made some original contributions to the methods of medical image acquisition and analysis.
The winner developed a three-dimensional high-resolution diffuse magnetic resonance imaging sequence that achieved an ultra-high imaging resolution (0.1×0.1×0.1 mm) of high-field live brain imaging, a global leader, and was promoted in more than a dozen well-known laboratories around the world.
The winner is the leader in the principle of time-domain dispersion magnetic resonance physics in medical imaging, based on this technology to break through the limits of magnetic resonance spatial resolution, quantitatively depict the cell-level microstructure characteristics and their changes in the pathological state, the first to achieve the technology in human brain tumors, stroke transformation applications.
Applying rapid and high-resolution imaging techniques to fetuses and infants, establishing a database of fetal and infant multimodal brain maps and data post-processing processes, studying the temporal and temporal changes in brain development and early detection of early brain diseases.
Position: Associate Professor, Harbin University of Technology
Reason for the award: He built a micro-nano robot that can cross multiple biological barriers to deliver drugs precisely to the bottom of the eye.
The winner integrates colloidal and interface technology into the research of micro-nanorobots, solves the key problem of microna robot crossing the biological barrier for the first time, and he puts forward the technology based on optical tomography for the first time to locate and control the micro-nano robot in real time in animals.
Based on these two key breakthroughs, the winner developed a micro-nanorobot with a head diameter of only 500 nanometers, which allows controlled and efficient cluster movement in the eye glass by controlling nanorobots to pass through multiple biological barriers for drug delivery to the bottom of the eye.
In the future, this micro-nano robot is expected to load drugs, through autonomous movement to reach the lesions, the implementation of the drug active target delivery tasks, to achieve the disease’s minimally invasive precision treatment.
Position: Professor, University of Science and Technology, China
Reason for the award: He is committed to making quantum information technology practical and expanding the boundaries of quantum communication and imaging.
Focusing on the practicalization of quantum information technology for more than ten years, the winner scored the world’s first crack to a commercial quantum key distribution system, realized the theoretical and experimental verification of quantum key distribution system and quantum fingerprint recognition of measurement equipment, and completed the experimental verification of omni-optical quantum repeater and chip-based quantum key distribution for the first time. The importance of quantum communication in practical security and efficiency is proved.
In recent years, the winners have pioneered new scientific research and led the team to invent a high-sensitivity single-photon quantum imaging system, breaking the longest distance record for single-photon quantum imaging. Its pioneering research results have far-reaching implications in the field of quantum information, and have made great contributions to the development and practicalization of quantum communication security, long-distance quantum communication and quantum imaging technology.
Position: Professor of Bioelectronics, Sun Yat-sen University
Reason for the award: He cross-integrates photoelectric sensing technology with biomedical technology to provide cutting-edge tools for biological research and medical treatment.
In order to better carry out biomedical basic research, the assistance of photoelectric sensing tools is one of the essential conditions. Based on this demand, the winner’s team collaborated with a number of biomedical laboratories to design special biomedical research instruments through microprocessing technology.
The winners are committed to advancing the bioelectronics discipline and developing new micro-nanodevices and diagnostic systems that will provide cutting-edge tools for sensing detection and drug release therapy in the biomedical field. The winner pioneered the development of a high-precision hollow nanoneedle array preparation method and the integration of micro-nano devices, realizing in situ detection cells and high time-space resolution to regulate cell behavior and other applications.
On the other hand, the winners also actively carry out research on wearable and implantable diagnosis and treatment systems with clinical medical value, and realize the accurate detection or regulation of epidermis or in vivo disease information in situ, hoping to provide new tools for clinical diagnosis and treatment.
Position: Researcher, School of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University;
Reason for the award: She broke the world record for the efficiency of the calcium titanium led with a simple and inexpensive new method of preparation, and she used tin instead of lead to reduce the toxicity of calcium titanium solar cells.
As a new semiconductor material, the halide calcium titanium mine has shown great application potential in many fields such as optoelectronics, but the “quantum efficiency” of photoelectric transformation in its work is always the key to restrict development.
Starting with the luminescence mechanism of the led device of the calcium titanium ore, the winner almost completely inhibited the non-radiation loss on the body and device interface of the calcium titanium ore material, achieving for the first time nearly 100% of the quantum efficiency of the LED, and the record greater than 20% of the external quantum efficiency.
The study was also selected by Nature Photonics as the cover of the current issue, which broke the world record for the efficiency of calcium titanium-titanium LED using a calcium-titanium-polymer heterogeneous structure, making calcium titanium LED a simple preparation and low-cost technology more promising in the future.
In addition, in order to solve one of the major problems faced by the large-scale application of calcium titanium ore materials: toxicity. The winners used tin instead of lead to reduce the toxicity of calcium titanium ore and were among the first researchers to explore high-efficiency tin lead-mixed calcium titanium-titanium-based solar cells. Its research has played a great role in promoting the large-scale application of calcium-titanium optoelectronic technology.
Position: Postdoctoral Fellow, Peking University
Award-winning reason: He established and optimized genomic high-throughput functional screening methodologies for safe and efficient RNA monobase editing.
The winner’s research focused on the establishment and optimization of high-throughput functional screening methodologies based on gene knockout based on the CRISPR-Cas9 system, and for the first time established functional screening of genes in mammalian cells, a genetic tool that revolutionized the way genes are studied. A functional knock-off screening methodology for non-coding components of genomes such as non-coding RNA is established for the first time.
In addition, the winners and colleagues have developed a new RNA editing method, the LEAPER system, for the first time to achieve accurate and efficient editing of nucleic acids that do not rely on any exogenous protein expression, demonstrating LEAPER’s great potential in the field of gene repair and disease treatment.
Position: Postdoctoral Scholar, California Institute of Technology
Award-winning reason: He is committed to biomedical imaging research and is working on a new generation of bioimaging devices that he hopes will better understand the human brain and better observe and detect human diseases.
The winner sat on the construction of the most advanced optical acoustic computing tomography system, a single-pulse panoramic optical acoustic computing tomography system, achieving high speed (up to 20kHz frame speed), high resolution (100 microns), high penetration depth (greater than 5 cm) imaging, and a combination of structural, functional and molecular imaging. This system is the first in the field of biomedical imaging.
The winners proposed combining photosensitive switching protein probes with optical acoustic imaging, enabling multi-scale, high-sensitivity and high-contrast imaging for the first time. This technique was used to track the growth and metastasis of cancer cells in deep tissues of living organisms and to achieve over-resolution (140 nm) imaging of individual cancer cells.
For the first time, the winner realized the time reusurum of multi-dimensional spatial information by introducing the traversal cavity into optical acoustic imaging. For the first time, the technology enables two-dimensional optical imaging using a single sensor element, enabling frame rates of up to kilohertz without any mechanical scanning, greatly simplifying the system, reducing costs, and maintaining imaging quality.
Position: Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Michigan
Reason for winning: He focuses on refrigeration and thermal photovoltaic technologies to unlock barriers to efficient use of energy.
The winner has cultivated nanophotonics and refrigeration technology for many years, and has made breakthrough contributions in both thermal radiation control theory and experiments.
The winners used nanophotoelectronics to achieve laser-free photothermal refrigeration technology for the first time, with great potential for applications in the field of electronic component selying and aerospace, opening up a new scientific direction for thermal radiation control. Prior to this, he and his collaborators had theoretically demonstrated that they could use the non-coherent light emitted by light-emitting diodes for refrigeration.
The winners are also committed to the study of new thermal photovoltaic technology, reducing the distance between thermal emitters and thermal photovoltaic cells to the nanoscale, greatly improving the efficiency of waste heat-to-electricity, and making an important contribution to the efficient use of energy and the expansion of renewable energy application prospects.
Position: Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University
Reason for the award: He designed and manufactured high-frequency integrated circuits that were only atomic-grade thickness, exploring new possibilities for the “post-Moore era” beyond traditional silicon-based chips.
The winner focused on exploring the structure and application of flexible two-dimensional semiconductor materials, led the team to design and manufacture a flexible high-frequency integrated circuit with atomic thickness, not only overcome the technical challenges of high-frequency wireless energy acquisition, break through the frequency bottleneck of traditional flexible semiconductors, but also refresh the highest record of the system integration of flexible rectifier antenna cut-off frequencies, Successfully covers Wi-Fi, Bluetooth-band wireless power.
The winner’s innovations have important application value for wearables, flexible electronics and the Internet of Things, opening up a new breakthrough for the “post-Moore era” to surpass traditional silicon-based chips.
Position: Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, Berkeley
Why he won: He invented a way to control neurons in the brain without creativity, promising to help treat diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and depression.
One third of the world’s population suffers from neurological diseases and lacks effective treatment. Implanting brain electrodes, although effective, but because of traumatic ityist can not be universal. Another idea is to express the photosensitive ion channel protein on the neuron, and then use blue light to control the ion channel opening and closing. But how to get blue light through brain tissue is another big problem.
The winners developed a method of implanting the upconverter nanomaterial in advance near neurons to be controlled in the brain, converting penetrating red light into light that can be responded to by ion channels. As a result, it is possible to control specific neurons from the outside of the brain with infrared light.
“This may open a way for people to use light to control mood disorders and treat Parkinson’s disease and even paralysis,” the journal Science said. “
Position: California Institute of Technology Fellow
Reason for winning: He uses artificially designed proteins to program life from scratch.
The winners designed and validated highly specific protein homologous and hetero-dipolymers from scratch by precisely designing protein hydrogen bond networks to achieve binding specificity between proteins, and are proteins not seen in nature, the first time a “protein version of DNA base pairing” in the field of protein design has been This new interaction is applied to artificially designed proteins.
In addition, the winners successfully assembled the proteins designed from scratch into two-dimensional materials and demonstrated how to design individual building blocks into two different array geometry by optimizing the sequence at the interaction interface, with broad applications in the field of programmable intelligent materials.
Position: Assistant Professor, Tsinghua University
Award reason: He is engaged in high-safety lithium-ion battery research work, systematically studied the thermal out-of-control mechanism of lithium-ion battery, and proposed a series of new methods to improve the safety of lithium-ion at the material level.
In the “germination” stage of battery heat out of control, the winner introduced a dynamic supermolecule as the “intelligent feedback” coating of lithium metal electrode, and proposed a new method to inhibit the production of lithium fission crystals, and in the “spread” stage, proposed a new mechanism of “reaction-protection” diaphragm, which slowed the growth rate of lithium branches by chemical quenching. The life of the lithium metal anode was extended by 6 times, and in the “explosion” phase, a “molecular fire extinguisher” with thermal stimulation response was constructed, reducing the self-extinguishing time of the electrolyte by nearly 30 times without affecting the performance of the lithium-ion battery.
The series of results in essence significantly improved the safety of lithium-ion batteries, is expected to make electric vehicles, mobile phones and so on out of the fire fate.
Position: Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Canada
Reason for winning: To meet biomedical needs, he brings biomaterials closer to human tissue.
At present, the performance of soft biomaterials is much lower than that of biological tissues. The winners are committed to developing more bionic and high-performance biological materials that are not only chemically close to human tissue, but also in mechanical and biologically active, and are similar to healthy human tissue.
The winners used a multidisciplinary cross-cutting approach to research and improve the mechanical properties, bioactivity, intelligent response and drug cell delivery of soft biological materials. The award-winner’s research greatly improved the fracture toughness, tissue adhesion properties and drug-controlled release of soft biological materials.
The winner’s team has developed a range of new biomaterials, such as bionic bioglue to replace surgical sutures to close wounds, high-performance implants for joint cartilage and disc repair, and new hemostatic materials for controlling hemorrhage.
Position: Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech
Reason for the award: He discovered the design principles of a range of multi-functional biological materials, greatly expanding people’s understanding of biological materials.
In the biomaterials study, the winners found a shell made of 99% calcite, but 10 times more resistant to calcite, while remaining transparent. The shells are made up of 1000 layers of geo-solution crystals, and the interface between the layers is only one or two nanometers, allowing light to travel between them without scattering. At the same time, there are organic matter between the layers, to prevent the spread of cracks, and calcite pressure will produce a crystal, so that the shell has the metal-like anti-damage properties.
In addition, another study by the winner was featured on the cover of Science. The winner found that a shell can form mineral eyes less than 1/10 mm in diameter. This kind of eye can concentrate photography and evolve sits in nearly 10 million years, upsetting research into eye evolution.
The results of the award-winning research on a range of multi-functional biomaterials will provide new inspiration for the development of the next generation of materials. For example, transparent, pressure-resistant materials found on biology are expected to help make new electronic device protection screens.
Position: Assistant Professor and Michal Fellow, Cornell University, USA
Reason for winning: He replaced traditional pharmaceutical pathways with electrochemistry and found “the most valuable response of the past decade.”
Finding efficient catalysts is the focus of electrochemical development. The winners have done two outstanding studies in this field.
In the energy sector, the team of winners invented an organic catalyst that aggregates cobalt into porous materials, greatly increasing the conversion efficiency, catalyst stability and product purity of carbon dioxide into carbon fuels.
In the pharmaceutical world, the team of winners designed the electrochemical synthesis pathway next to diamine and found an efficient catalyst, which was praised by the reviewers of Science magazine as “the most valuable electrochemical transformation reaction of the past decade”. When this synthetic approach is widely used, pharmaceutical companies can avoid the use of expensive, highly polluting chemicals and reduce pollutant emissions.
It is worth noting that the research of the winners has good practical value in the industrial field. He has planned to work with pharmaceutical companies to test and then start a business around the product.
Position: Co-Founder and CEO of Jingtai Technology
Reason for winning: He built an efficient, high-precision artificial intelligence drug design platform that uses computing to drive new drug development.
During his postdoctoral work at MIT, the winner systematically developed an effective method of analyzing numerical values around the quantum entanglement effect in the energy transport of photosynthesis systems, revealing the effects of quantum cosy and entanglement in photosynthesis.
After the venture, the winners integrated Jingtai Technology Tocreate an efficient and high-precision ID4 AI ad design platform that provided computational services such as drug solid structure and performance prediction, intelligent design and optimization of leading compounds, and supported more than 100 new drug pipelines involving more than 500 research and development activities.
The current drug development services based on the platform have received long-term orders and high praise from several of the world’s top 50 pharmaceutical companies, including Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Position: Assistant Professor, Federal Polytechnic University, Lausanne, Switzerland
Reason for winning: He used his pioneering work to open the way for immunotherapy and cancer vaccine development.
Based on the inherited T-cell therapy, the winners pioneered the design of intelligent nanoparticle “drug backpacks” for T-cells through unique nanotechnology, significantly enhancing the effectiveness and safety of T-cell therapy.
At the same time, two underlying technology platforms for “Neoantigen Prediction and PNE (New Epibit) Vaccine Delivery” were built to complete personalized cancer vaccine designs for new antigen prediction and carrier-free vaccine delivery, as well as precision immunotherapy. Compared with traditional technology, efficient, stable and low-cost, the platform will be a powerful boost to the future of accurate personalized vaccine design for each independent patient and the entire field of cancer treatment.
Position: Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology; Director, Joint Laboratory of Blockchain, JN-J-J-Tech-Chinese Academy of Sciences
Reason for winning: Block the ubiquitous “back door” and clear the fog of the distributed economy, using cryptography and blockchain to rebuild trust in the information age.
The winners have made breakthrough achievements in the basic theory and practical application of cryptography, including personal privacy, copyright protection, crypto-currency and so on, which have had a great impact on the field of cryptography and cyberspace security.
The award-winning and collaborating team’s study of the “backdoor” of the code is the world’s first systematic, comprehensive and ground-breaking study of the direction, with a series of ground-breaking results that have led to a new direction of research: Cliptography, which has received a series of authoritative recognitions.
In the field of blockchain, he divides the core part of blockchain technology into distributed applications, consensus protocols and cryptography support modules. This provides researchers with a systematic way of finding and solving problems. The winners are committed to researching the core challenges of each layer and working with industry in depth to drive the underlying technology breakthrough to its real landing.
Position: Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University
Reason for the award: He has achieved a series of achievements in the field of thermal management, advanced batteries and other energy technology.
In thermal management, the winner developed a simple, inexpensive radiation refrigeration coating that automatically cools down without electricity, and when applied to the exterior surface of a building, the temperature can be 5-10 degrees Celsius lower than conventional coatings of the same color, helping to reduce the energy consumption of building refrigeration.
In the field of advanced batteries, the winners developed a method to improve the interface stability of solid-state electrolytes and lithium-metal metals, which can significantly improve the cycle life of solid-state batteries.
In addition, a variety of flexible battery can be machined, with an energy density of 80%-90% of the same size of lithium-ion batteries, which can significantly increase the life of the device when used in portable electronic devices. Relevant research is expected to have an important impact on the development of energy-efficient buildings, energy storage and other fields.
Position: Researcher, Westlake University
Reason for winning: He achieves the highest-precision electronic 3D printing of the moment.
Today, 3D printing technology on the market can be as accurate as tens of microns or hundreds of microns, which is not enough for processing many electronic devices. Using new materials as the core to push the limits of 3D printing accuracy, the winners designed new 3D printing functional materials, combined with ultra-high-precision 3D printing technology to achieve the highest accuracy of the moment – 100 nm to micron electronic 3D printing.
By achieving ultra-high accuracy, the winners introduced 3D multi-material printing technology to high-end manufacturing areas such as chips, enabling the packaging and integration of GHz-grade high-frequency, RF electronics with 3D printing, and 3D printing technology to create passive devices that reduce antenna size to 10 microns to 100 microns.
This approach improves the accuracy by 1-2 orders of magnitude in accuracy, enabling 3D printing technology to be applied to areas such as 5G RF technology, providing new manufacturing solutions for future miniaturization, integrated, and personalized electronic devices.
Position: Lecturer, Zhejiang University
Reason for winning: She used acoustic telemetry to explore the sea and created new ideas for technology applications.
For the first time, the winner developed a high-resolution, fully polarized far-field tomography microimaging technology (TDM), greatly expanding the field of TDM applications. She also applied the complex inverse problem solving method to the field of marine acoustic telemetry, studied the application of opportunistic sound sources from the perspective of remote sensing systems, and devoted herself to the use of opportunistic sound sources for marine environmental observation.
Aiming at the underwater target positioning and classification, the breakthrough proposed data-based deconvolution method to eliminate channel distortion, which provided a new way of thinking for the application of acoustic color technology in the ocean, and made important contribution softening and application of marine acoustic telemetry technology.
Position: Assistant Professor, Arizona State University
Reason for winning: He wants to make “brightest” LEDs to reduce global energy consumption in lighting and power conversion.
The problem of efficiency decline at high circuit density has plagued the LED industry for many years. During his phalmon, the winnerfound that a non-polar surface of the hexacrystal nitride was much better than the other surfaces, and finally produced an inefficient decay LED on the surface, and the results were selected as the best paper of the year by Applied Physics Express and Applied Physics Letters, translated into six languages, including Chinese, German, French and Western, and were “scientific” Nature Photonics, Composite Semiconductors, american optical society (OSA) and other widely reported more than 100 times.
With the creation of an independent laboratory, the winners developed the world’s most advanced vertical GaN power transistors that can be converted from electricity in high currentand and high voltage environments. The U.S. Department of Energy believes the results are expected to be industrialised by semiconductor giants within three to five years. Today, 10% of the world’s power consumption is power conversion loss, and the award-winning person’s work is the main way to reduce this loss. The winners also have important research results in the fields of high temperature devices and quantum photonic devices.
IN AUGUST 2019 AT THE WHITE HOUSE, THE WINNER ACCEPTED THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES PRESIDENT’S PRESIDENTIAL AWARD FOR YOUNG SCIENTISTS (PECASE).
Position: Associate Professor, Tsinghua University
Reason for the award: He and his research team pioneered the artificial carbon sink effect of cement materials, providing enhanced anthropogenic carbon sinks and negative emission technologies as solutions to global change. Participated in and made important contributions to the study of global-scale carbon cycle quantification.
Through the impact of the carbonization process on infrastructure such as cement on the global carbon balance, the winners suggested that cement could be a potential man-made carbon sink and provide ideas for future negative emission technologies such as carbon sequestration through new building materials.
The winners also conducted a number of global quantitative research and systematic assessments of carbon balance spending through big data technology, and the results of the study are important for improving global carbon data and developing policies to address global climate change.
Position: Special Researcher, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Associate Professor, Long-Term Teaching Track
Reason for winning: He turned photosynthetic microorganisms into treasure, directly converting CO2 into a range of high-value natural products.
The winners focused on green synthesis research, based on synthetic biology, and pioneered the use of photosynthesis microorganisms for direct conversion of solar energy and the greenhouse gas CO2 to produce a range of high-value natural products. By constructing artificial metabolic traps, the photosynthesis efficiency is improved by nearly 7 percent, and the reconstruction mechanism of photosynthesis electronic chain is revealed. At the same time, waste into treasure, decay into magic, through the green process of rich lignin-rich agricultural waste for high-value use.
The study is likely to lead to a disruptive new industrialization model, which will not only promote economic growth, but also bring revolutionary impetus to food safety, energy supply, climate change and other aspects, with broad application prospects and great economic value.
Position: Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, Irvine
Reason for the award: For the first time, she reveals the health effects of pm2.5 transboundary pollution implied by global trade and warns that the goal of controlling global warming below 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2100 will not be achieved if existing energy facilities around the world are released at current operating conditions.
The award-winners found that pollution shifts from actual consumer to producing countries as international trade shifts from actual consumers, and that international trade increases PM2.5 pollution exposure and premature deaths in developing countries. Developing countries should accelerate the elimination of backward low-end production capacity and reduce local emissions, and the international community should advocate for sustainable consumption and establish cooperation mechanisms to promote technology transfer. This research is of great practical significance to policy-making.
In addition, the winner scored two outstanding studies: she first established a global scale unit-based energy industry air pollution emissions database, which revealed emissions from highly polluting generator sets worldwide, and she calculated that even when active and planned basic energy facilities were considered (in historical conditions), Future carbon emissions will also significantly exceed the remaining carbon footprint under the IPCC’s (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) target of no more than 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2100, noting that countries must accelerate the phase-out of fossil fuel facilities and the transition to green, low-carbon development and clean energy systems.
In the future, the winners hope to focus on future emission scenario studies and work towards the government’s efforts to develop practical measures to reduce emissions.
There is no doubt that “innovation, from 0 to 1 revolution” “The mission of scientific research work is to explore no man’s land and expand the boundaries of human knowledge” “Thanks to this era, let our innovation opportunities far beyond the past” “Don’t forget the first thought, for the next generation of technology acceleration”, the above is the 2019 list of winners for scientific research innovation self-expectation.
As for the development of China’s scientific and technological innovation model, they also embrace enthusiasm and ambition: “based on the human sea tactics of the scientific research industry model is no longer effective.” The next generation of scientific research and technological breakthroughs will be produced in the practical mature rational exploration, this is a great opportunity for young scientists” “the road of scientific and technological innovation, run behind will be eliminated, no core technology will be led by the nose” “master the initiative to continue to lead” and more Chinese enterprises stand together in the ranks of scientific and technological innovation, “The large amount of data accumulated from the “model innovation” will be based on scientific and technological innovation to bring a new wave of dividends” “Emerging technologies are emerging around the world, and we must seize these potential growth points to nurture our own emerging technologies”.
So, while this winter of late 2019 is a “cold winter of capital” for many people, in the MIT Science and Technology Review’s “35-year-old science and technology innovation 35” China 2019 list, we see a promising emerging era of power for every winner.