Physical World magazine’s Top 10 Discovery of the Year: First Black Hole Photos Top

Beijing time on December 18, according tomedia reports, at present, “Physical World” magazine’s latest selection of 2019 top 10 discoveries, in which scientists take black hole photos ranked first, the following is the media selected the top ten discoveries in 2019:

1. Direct observation of black holes and their “shadows”

Physical World magazine's Top 10 Discovery of the Year: First Black Hole Photos Top

The image shows the center of the galaxy 55 million light-years from Earth, a ring of radio radiation orbiting a supermassive black hole, and for the first time astronomers from the Event Horizon telescope have obtained images near the black hole event horizon, the universe’s material and energy cannot escape the powerful gravitational pull of the black hole. This is the result of observations by eight radio telescopes in six different locations around the world. The black hole, which is 6.5 billion times the mass of the sun, is a bright ring-shaped structure that is the gas and dust around the black hole in the accretion disk, which is heated to billions of degrees Celsius, which emits bright radio waves. Einstein’s general theory of relativity predicts that a black hole has a “shadow” with a radius of about three times the radius of the black hole’s horizon, and that the black hole’s shadow is interesting, depending on the mass of the black hole and the speed at which it rotates.

2. Neurodreiduria technology device converts brain activity into language

Physical World magazine's Top 10 Discovery of the Year: First Black Hole Photos Top

Hassan Akbari, Nima Mesgarani and Edward Chang of the University of California, San Francisco, and others from Columbia University’s Zuckerman Institute have developed a neurorepair device that can reconstruct language from neural activities. The device helps those who can’t speak regain their ability to communicate with the outside world, for the benefit of: paralysed patients and stroke patients. In addition to medical applications, human thought can be converted directly into language, which can make direct communication between computers and the brain a reality.

3, the first discovery of “fire shock”

Physical World magazine's Top 10 Discovery of the Year: First Black Hole Photos Top

Scientists on NASA’s Insight Mars mission have discovered the first “fire- and seismic” signal, detected on April 6, and researchers believe the tiny vibrations originated inside Mars, not from the Martian wind or other surface phenomena. Like the moon, Mars has no tectonic plates, so it is quieter than Earth in seismic activity, and studying Martian seismology will provide important information inside Mars to reveal how the planet formed.

4. CERN physicists discover the asymmetry of quarks

Physical World magazine's Top 10 Discovery of the Year: First Black Hole Photos Top

For the first time, CERN’s Large Hadron Collider experimental physicists measured the “charge-yu-no-consons” phenomenon, and the researchers discovered the decay rate of the D0 meson (including 1 quag) and the anti-D0 meson and K meson/anti-K meson pair or the meson/anti-meson pair. Since the D0 meemes and the anti-D0 mesons produce the same substance, CERN’s biggest challenge is to determine whether there is an event related to DO or antiDO mesons, although this latest measurement is consistent with our current understanding of the asymmetry of the “charge-no-non-conservation” phenomenon, but it opens up the possibility of finding physics outside the standard model.

5, “small coil” to create a record-breaking continuous magnetic field

Physical World magazine's Top 10 Discovery of the Year: First Black Hole Photos Top

Seungyong Hahn, a researcher at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (MagLab) in Tallahassee, Florida, USA, and colleagues created the highest continuous magnetic field ever built in the lab, using a pocket called a “small coil.” High-temperature superconducting magnets produce a continuous magnetic field strength of 45.5 Teslas, compared with 1% of Tesla’s for refrigerator magnets. It’s a hybrid magnet that relies on pairing an unusually cold superconductor with a more typical electromagnet, which previously required a small construction pipe, as well as a 35-ton mechanical device, but the newly designed “small coil” superconducting magnet, weighing only 390 grams, looks a bit like a flat disc wrapped in a thin sheet of metal. It is made of rare earth palladium copper oxide (REBCO), replacing the vanadium-based alloy used in 45 tons of heavy mixed magnets.

6, the Kasimir effect creates a “quantum trap” for tiny objects

Physical World magazine's Top 10 Discovery of the Year: First Black Hole Photos Top

Zhang Xiang and his colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley, used the Casimir effect, a peculiar phenomenon that creates attraction and repulsion between objects. Zhang and his colleagues used a coordinated combination of Kasimir effect gravity and repulsion to clamp a small piece of gold foil between the surface of gold and Teflon without an energy input. Measuring the tiny forces involved in the energy capture process is a victory for optical metering and provides an opportunity to better understand how the Kasimir effect affects the operation of micro-mechanical devices, and if these effects are further controlled, there may even be practical applications involving capturing particles.

7, antimatter quantum interference method debut

Physical World magazine's Top 10 Discovery of the Year: First Black Hole Photos Top

Antimatter is not only a particle, but also a wave, and this view is true even at the level of individual antimatter particles. To prove that antimatter is both a positive electron and a wave, physicists carried out a more complex “double-seam experiment”, in 1927, “double-stitch experiment” for the first time confirmed the electron-material as a way, and confirmed that antimatter is a particle, but also a wave. Because the “double seam experiment” is two waves that overlap but peaks and troughs cancel out or superposition each other as they move relative to each other, forming a unique model, also known as “interferometric.” In June, Italian and Swiss physicists found out how to produce low-energy positron beams, which could be used as the first antimatter quantum interferometry in a “double-stitch experiment.”

8. Quantum computer performs better than traditional supercomputer

Physical World magazine's Top 10 Discovery of the Year: First Black Hole Photos Top

Hartmut Neven, John Martinis and experts from several U.S. research institutions, including Google’s AI Quantum Quantum, are the first to run quantum computing. Quantum computers have proved to be shorter than traditional supercomputers, which consist of 53 programmable superconducting qubits that take about 200 seconds to complete a benchmark calculation, compared with 10,000 years for supercomputers.

9. Compact Gravity Detector

Physical World magazine's Top 10 Discovery of the Year: First Black Hole Photos Top

Victoria Xu, a researcher at the University of California, Berkeley, and colleagues have created a miniature gravity detector that uses captured atoms to measure local acceleration due to gravity, a “quantum gravity instrument” that relies on the interference patterns produced when atomic clouds first separate vertically in space and recombine. Most gravity instruments measure the effect of gravity on atoms as they fall, while the newly designed gravity detector is a gravity detector that suspends atoms in an optical trap where atoms interact with the gravitational field for up to 20 seconds. This miniature gravity detector greatly improves measurement sensitivity, thus laying the foundation for applications such as geophysical exploration to basic force sensitivity testing.

10. The first wearable brain magnetic scanner for children

Physical World magazine's Top 10 Discovery of the Year: First Black Hole Photos Top

British scientists Ryan Hill, Matthew Brookes and colleagues have developed a “bicycle helmet”-type brain magnetography scanner (MEG) to measure brain activity in children’s daily activities. In contrast, traditional brain magnetic mapping systems measure the weak magnetic field generated by the brain using a cryogenic cooling sensor, which can be mounted in a helmet of the right size, but which is large and highly sensitive to any head movement. Currently, researchers have installed a light light-pump magnet on a 500-gram helmet that can be adapted to a head of any shape, which can be used for children aged 2-5 who watch TV, teenagers playing computer games, and adults playing The Ukririg.

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