As 2019 draws to a close, we should not only sum up the sorrows and losses of the past year, but also look up at the new year’s sea of stars. The website of Nature recently gave us a look out for the big events in science in 2020. Including China’s Chang’e-5 lunar sample return mission, “Mars One” and other probes have gone to Mars, large-scale collider dream upgrade.
The Ostrich 2 explores the asteroid Dragon Palace (art image). Photo: JAXA.com
The Large Hadron Collider will be restarted in May 2021. Photo: CERN website
Cosmic exploration is fascinating
Mars is more than 55 million kilometers from Earth’s closest point and more than 400 million kilometers at its farthest point. The “Mars Day” occurs every 26 months, during which time the Earth is closer to Mars, and the probe can be sent to Mars in less time and in a shorter time, while the most recent “Mars Day” will be in July 2020. In view of this, China, the United States and Europe are scrambling to launch spacecraft to Mars in 2020, more than 4 billion years has been “lonely sandbar cold” Mars will become lively.
NASA will launch the Mars 2020 rover in the summer, collecting and storing rock samples on Mars and leaving it for future missions to bring it back to Earth, along with a small detachable unmanned helicopter. China’s first Mars rover, Mars One, will also be launched in 2020 and is scheduled to land on Mars in 2021. If the problem of landing parachutes can be solved, the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Rosalind Franklin rover will be launched on a Russian rocket, using a drill that can drill two meters below the surface to extract material that is not strongly radiated, which may contain evidence of life on Mars. The United Arab Emirates also plans to launch an orbiter toward Smars, which will be the first Mission to Mars by an Arab country.
In addition, the Chang’e-5 will carry out a lunar sample return mission in 2020; Japan’s Osprey 2 will return samples taken from the asteroid Dragon Palace to Earth; and NASA’s “Source Spectroscopic Interpretation Resource Safe Weathering Layer Identification Probe” will “bite” a sample from the asteroid Benu.
In 2019, scientists made a splash when they used the Event Horizon telescope (EHT) to capture the first black hole photos. But this is just the beginning of the story! The EHT team is expected to release new results this year on the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way, the Constellation of Man. ESA’s Gaia probe will also update the Milky Way’s three-dimensional map to give scientists a better understanding of its structure and evolution. Gravitational wave astronomers will also release data on cosmic impacts observed in 2019, including the intersection between black holes and previously unobserved collisions between black holes and stars.
Large Collider Dream Upgrade
CERN hopes to raise money for future giant colliders by 2020. The giant collider is part of the world’s largest particle physics laboratory, which will meet in Budapest in May 2020 to discuss the renewal of the European strategic plan for particle physics.
CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s most powerful collider, with a total length of 27 km. CERN wants to take it to the next level, building a 100-kilometer collider that is nearly four times the length of the LHC and more than six times the energy of the LHC, at a potential cost of $23.4 billion.
The results of the Musegg-2 experiment will be released in 2020 by ferocity national laboratory in the United States, and countless scientists are looking forward to it. The experiment aims to make high-precision measurements of the behavior of muse (the electronically heavier “cousin”) in the magnetic field. Physicists hope to discover small anomalies that reveal previously unknown elementary particles, opening the door to new physics.
Stopping climate change ushers in a critical moment
In August 2020, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) will publish an important report on geoengineering science and technology. Geoengineering methods are designed to combat climate change, including reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and blocking sunlight. The International Seabed Authority is also due to issue regulations in 2020 that will make seabed mining possible, but scientists fear it could damage marine ecosystems and even have disastrous effects on the battered environment.
The 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26), which will kick off in Glasgow, UK, in November 2020, will be the most important climate change conference since the signing of the Paris Agreement in 2015. At that point, countries will have to set new targets to reduce their own greenhouse gas emissions in order to meet the Paris Agreement’s target of limiting global warming to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels by 2100. Most countries are now underperforming in meeting their commitments.
A new round of U.S. presidential elections will be held in November 2020, and who will be in the White House? Who will control Congress? The results could have a significant impact on science, especially climate science.
Controversy and Progress in the Field of Biohealth
In the new year, scientists will not neglect the areas of human health that concern human health, in addition to focusing on the sea of stars.
In July, the Japanese government approved the first project to use animal-based human organs to grow human pancreas using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) in laboratory mice, which aims to confirm whether human organs can grow normally in animals for future transplants using technology. Although the study has been approved, it is still widely controversial. Some researchers believe that xenotransplantation still needs to overcome huge ethical and technological barriers, and that “organ-like” implants in the lab may be safer and more effective.
In the fight against infectious diseases, major tests on technologies using Wolbachia to combat dengue transmission will draw conclusions in yogyakarta, Indonesia. The World Health Organization also wants to eliminate sleeping sickness by 2020.
In addition, the synthetic biologist’s “Synthetic Yeast 2.0” project to build bread yeast from scratch will be completed in 2020, and researchers hope that genetically modified yeast cells will allow scientists to make more flexible and efficient products, from biofuels to drugs.
Energy industry rookies out
In 2020, there will also be many new achievements in the energy sector: the most anticipated is calcium-titanium solar cells. Compared to the silicon used in most panels today, calcium titanium concentrates are more efficient, less costly, and easier to manufacture. As a result, calcium-titanium solar cells have become the industry’s “new favorite”, and many companies plan to start selling the batteries in 2020. In addition, at the Tokyo Olympics in July 2020, Toyota Motor Corp. is expected to release its first solid-state battery-powered car prototype, which replaces liquid electrolytes in conventional batteries with solid-state electrolytes that can heat up in unusual cases, such as overcharging. Causing spontaneous combustion or even exploding can solve safety problems while increasing the energy density of batteries.
Superconductor experts will also have a major breakthrough in 2020. They have been hoping to develop superconductors that work at room temperature. They believe that the superconductor, once available, will revolutionise the way electricity is transmitted and save a lot of energy. In 2018, an international team found that under extreme pressure, “hyperhydrogenated niobium” can exhibit superconductivity at minus 23 degrees Celsius, a big step towards room temperature superconductors. Researchers plan to continue their efforts in 2020 to produce ultra-hydrogenated radon, a material that is expected to be superconducting at 53 degrees Celsius.
From the vast Milky Way to the dusty yeast, from the huge giant collider to the tiny solid-state battery, from the little wish to eliminate dengue fever to the big vision of curbing climate change… It’s all about the scientists.
Russian scientist Ivan Petrov, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine, once said: “Thanks to science, it not only fills life with joy and joy, but also gives life a pillar and self-esteem.” “We are grateful and looking forward to these scientific events that are coming up in 2020.