Nature’s Top 10 Science Prospects: Marching to Mars and Super Collider

BEIJING, Dec. 26, beijing news, according tomedia reports, at present, “Nature” magazine recently selected the most noteworthy scientific events in 2020, including human exploration of Mars, climate conference and human-animal hybrid into next year’s research agenda.

Nature's Top 10 Science Prospects: Marching to Mars and Super Collider

1, “Into Mars”!

Several Mars exploration projects will be undertaken in 2020, including three landers heading for Mars, NASA’s Mars 2020 probe, which will store rock samples back to Earth for further study, and a small, detachable unmanned helicopter, and China’s first Mars lander, Mars 1. A small rover will be deployed on the surface of Mars; a Russian spacecraft will carry the European Space Agency rover to the surface of Mars, provided that the landing parachute problem can be effectively resolved; and the United Arab Emirates will launch a satellite, the country’s first mission to Mars.

Closer to Earth, China plans to launch the Chang’e-5 probe, take samples from the moon and return to Earth, Japan’s Osprey II mission will collect samples from the Dragon Palace asteroid, and NASA’s OSIRIS-Rex probe will collect samples of the Benu asteroid.

2. Update the Galaxy’s 3D map

In 2019, scientists captured images of the supermassive black hole at the center of messier’s 87 galaxy, causing a media sensation, and now the New Horizons probe is expected to release the latest data on the black hole at the center of the Milky Way, possibly including multiple photos and even videoofable gas forming a vortex around the black hole. The black hole at the center of the Milky Way is known as the Constellation of The Constellation of Man.

The European spacecraft Gaia is expected to update its 3D map of the Milky Way in the second half of 2020, significantly changing scientists’ understanding of the structure and evolution of the Milky Way, while gravitational-wave astronomers will release images of cosmic collisions they have observed in 2019 that will cause ripples in the air. These include the merger of many black holes, but also the collision of previously seen black holes with stars.

3, Super Collider Dream

CERN hopes to raise funds for the new large collider by 2020, and the European Particle-Physics Laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, will hold a special meeting in May 2020, at which the Commission will decide to establish the new collider as part of its strategic plan for particle physics. The lab hopes to build a 100-kilometer super collider, six times as powerful as the Large Hadron Collider, at an estimated cost of $23.4 billion (21 billion euros).

In 2020, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in the United States should release the long-awaited Muon g-2 results, a high-precision measurement of how the meson (a larger electron pair) works in a magnetic field, and physicists hope that tiny anomalies will reveal previously unknown basic particles.

4. Artificial yeast

Saccharmyces cerevisiae, a synthetic biologist, is expected to become a reality by 2020, and researchers have completely replaced previously simpler biological genetic codes, such as mycoplasma mycobacterium, but artificial yeasts are more challenging. Because of its complexity, the study, called Artificial Yeast 2.0, was carried out in collaboration with 15 laboratories on four continents. The team now recalls replacing each of the 16 chromosomes in the yeast with synthetic DNA fragments, and they also try to recombine and edit the genome, or delete part of the genome, to understand how the organism evolved and how it responded to mutations. The researchers hope artificial yeast cells will be able to make a large number of products in a more efficient and flexible way, from biofuels to drugs.

Climate change

In August 2020, the United Nations Environment Programme will issue a major report on geoengineering science and technology that could be used to combat climate change, such as absorbing carbon dioxide from the Earth’s atmosphere and blocking sunlight. In the same year, the International Seabed Authority will issue long-awaited regulations that make seabed mining possible, and scientists fear that seabed mining could damage marine ecosystems and have catastrophic effects on stressed environments, yet the negative effects of climate change are not fully understood.

But the big climate event will take place in November 2020, when the COP26 climate conference will be held in Glasgow, England, and will usher in a pivotal moment in the Paris Agreement, under which countries must propose the latest greenhouse gas reduction targets that will help limit global warming to 2 degrees Celsius a year. But most countries have been slow to meet their commitments, and the agreement has a “uncertain future” – the United States formally notified the United Nations of its withdrawal from the Paris Agreement in November 2019.

6, the climax of the U.S. election

The 59th U.S. presidential election will be held in early November 2020, and the results are expected to have important implications for science, particularly in climate policy, and if Mr. Trump is re-elected, he will continue to articulate his climate strategy and ensure that the United States formally withdraws from the Paris Agreement the day after his election. Democrats could block the move by entering the White House or gaining a majority in both houses of Congress, with all 435 seats in the House and 35 of the 100 seats in the Senate set to continue after the presidential election.

7, “Human-Rat Organs”

In recent years, scientists have improved their ability to grow human organs in animal bodies, and in the future it is hoped that they will be able to grow organs in other animals and eventually transplant them into human bodies. The hybrid embryos were then transferred to alternative animals until a new Japanese law came into force in March 2018. It is understood that Hiromitsu Nakauchi and colleagues have applied similar experiments to pig embryos, the ultimate goal of which is to grow human transplanted organs on animals, but some researchers disagree that it would be safer and more effective to grow “organ-like” in the laboratory.

8. Antiviral mosquitoes

In Yogyakarta, Indonesia, a technique that could stop the spread of dengue fever will be tested, and researchers have released a large number of mosquitoes carrying Wolbachia bacteria, which can suppress mosquito-borne dengue, chikungunya, and the Zika virus, leading to widespread spread of mosquito populations in the wild. Small-scale experiments in Vietnam and Brazil have offered compelling promise.

Also promising is a malaria vaccine, which will be tested on the island of Bioko in Equatorial Guinea, and is expected to eliminate the public health problem of African trypanosomiasis, which is transmitted among people by tsetse flies, by 2020.

9. Developing new superconducting materials

Physicists hope to achieve their dream of creating a non-resistive conductive material at room temperature, even though the superconducting material currently works only under pressure of millions of kilopas. In 2018, a super hydride called niobium broke all superconducting temperature records, after which researchers hope to synthesize a superconducting super hydride at temperatures of up to 53 degrees Celsius.

10, solid energy

In recent years, companies around the world have started selling calcium-titanium solar cells, a material that is expected to be cheaper and easier to produce than silicon crystals from conventional solar panels, combining calcium-titanium ore with silicon in “series” batteries to produce the most efficient solar panels on the market.

The energy industry is likely to reach another milestone during the Tokyo Olympics in July 2020, when Japan’s Toyota is expected to launch its first car prototype using a “solid” lithium-ion battery that uses solid materials to replace liquids that previously separated electrodes inside the batteries, increasing the amount of energy that can be stored. Solids have longer battery life, but charging more slowly. (Ye Ding Cheng)

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