Beijing time on December 30, according tomedia reports, at present, “Archaeology” magazine recently announced the 2019 top 10 exciting archaeological events, including:
1. The tomb of the Pharaoh Secretary in the period of the ancient kingdom of Egypt
During an investigation into the mausoleum of the pharaoh of the fifth dynasty of ancient Egypt, Jedrare Issi (circa 2381-2353 BC), archaeologists from the Egyptian Antiquities Institute in the Czech Republic discovered that there was a tomb of a senior ancient Egyptian official, mohamed Mohamed, an archaeologist. Led by Megahed, the team entered several rooms from a narrow underground tunnel and found hieroglyphs on the walls indicating that a man named Khuwy was buried in the tomb. The text also lists many of Coy’s titles, including:”The Secretary of the Pharaohs”, “Partners of the Royal Family” and so on.
Along with these hieroglyphs, they are also discovered with brightly coloured frescoes that are still alive even after 4,300 years. One of the murals depicts Khuwy, the tomb’s owner, sitting at a table filled with food, drinks and other offerings for the afterlife. “Such high-profile burial slabs are rare, high-quality frescoes in the ancient Kingdom of Egypt, their proximity to the pyramids of the Pharaohs, and the tomb design that mimics the tomb style of the Fifth Dynasty Pharaohs, all demonstrate the importance of Khuwy in the ancient Egyptian royal family,” Meghahed said. “
2, Maya Underworld
Archaeologists exploring a cave near Chichen Itza, the ancient site of the ancient city of the Mayan center, discovered several rooms filled with sacrificial objects, supporting the theory that the Mayans built the great city before the 7th century AD in close connection to the sacred underground world. Archaeologists first discovered the cave in 1966, calling it “Balamku”, or “the cave of the jaguar god.”
Archaeologists from Mexico and the University of California, Los Angeles, have reopened the long-neglected cave during an underground river survey, and after climbing through the narrow passages, they found at least seven sacrificial sites containing about 170 ceramics, including a incense oven decorated with portraits of the rain god Tralok. Archaeologists point out that by studying the mysterious cave, it has proved its significance to the ancient Mayan civilization, which archaeologists have not yet fully understood, and that the antiquities in the cave have been desecrated, possibly in 1200 A.D. attacks on the ruins of the ancient city of Chichen Itza, also caused a major blow to the cave, causing the collapse of the cave. In-depth study of the cave will provide precise time clues to the decline of the ancient city of Chichen Itza.
3, Neolithic feast
Not only did neolithic ancient humans trek hundreds of kilometers to the Holy Land to celebrate, they also took their pigs to the site for slaughter, and the food that animals and people ate when they were young left chemical signals on their teeth and bones, helping scientists analyze where they grew up. Richard Madgwick, of Cardiff University, recently analysed four circular stone structure sites, including Durrington Walls in south-west England, more than 4,000 years ago and found many discarded pig bones there. Many of the pigs slaughtered at these sites were not raised in the vicinity, but were transported from the far north, present-day Scotland and north-west England.
“This shows that the Neolithic society at the time was more fluid and relevant than we had expected, and the participants in these celebrations were obviously from all sides, and their activities were very organized, and one of the requests might have been to donate a pig they raised, and they came together,” Medwick said. Enjoying delicious food from different regions, the event is a powerful way to build group identity. “
4, about the origin of Apple
Researchers are now one step closer to understanding the origins of apples, which is how they have switched from wild plants to artificially grown fruits, a process that is different from the cultivation of crops such as wheat and rice. The earliest apples were self-cultivation powdered, and the ripened fruit fell to the ground every year, producing new fruits every year. About 12,000 years ago, humans began collecting apples and then trying to grow apple trees, while when apples that fell on the ground rotted, or the first generation grew too close to second-generation apple trees, which had poor reproductive capacity and relied mainly on animals, including humans, to spread seeds and pollination.
Fossil records show that apples were grown in Europe and Asia as early as 11.6 million years ago, and that apple specimens from Neolithic sites in Switzerland date back to 3160 BC, and archaeologists found an apple seed from the end of 1000 at the site of a village in Kazakhstan’s Tianshan Mountains. It is believed to be the earliest origin of modern apples. To determine how apples were cultivated artificially, Robert Spengler, an archeologist at the Max Planck Institute for Human History, combined fossils, archaeological evidence and genetic studies to compare modern apples with early apples and conclude that The first humans to come into contact with wild apples were seeded and pollinated, and inadvertently expanded the range of apples grown, it was clear that humans had suffered the delicious temptation of apples.
5, Medieval Female Scribes
Turquoise is a bright blue pigment that was dreamed of in the Middle Ages and sometimes even sold for more than gold, made from cylaxeliasis minerals mined in remote parts of Afghanistan, so a multidisciplinary team of researchers was surprised to find german monasteries in the 11th or early 12th centuries. A woman’s plaque contains a large amount of dark blue particles. “We’re curious to know how women were exposed to this extremely expensive mineral in a closed area at such an early age,” said Christina Warinner, a molecular archaeologist at Harvard University and the Max Planck Institute for Human History. “
The researchers concluded that the most likely explanation was that the woman was a medieval scribe who painted the abbey murals with paint, and that the latest archaeological analysis may have pointed the way for identifying more early medieval female scribes who, in historical history, were not recognised for their work because of their small numbers. And rarely sign a work. “We do have some simultaneous female manuscripts, and if we do a detailed analysis of their teeth, we’ll probably find more information,” Werner said. “
6, “Golden House”
Archaeologists have made a new discovery in Rome, the “Domus Aurea”, a luxury palace built during the period of the ancient Roman tyrant Nero, destroyed in a fire in 64 AD, and after the death of the tyrant Nero, the luxury palace was considered a ridiculous building, with its interior filled with objects. A large Roman park was built on top of this luxurious palace, which was discovered by chance in the 15th century.
Since then, the Domus Aurea Palace has been constantly excavated, excavated and restored, and in an archaeological restoration project, archaeologists have discovered a new house with a large number of frescoes depicting it, and Alessandro Delecio, an archaeologist at the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage D’Alessio said: “We were very excited to find an unknown room with a very beautifully rich mural, including a number of mythological figures, such as a man’s horse, a whistle-blowing instrument, decorative plants, and a pillar with a gold bowl at the top. “
7, Peru found a large number of sacrificial remains
Archaeologists have found some 230 children and 400 llama bones at the coastal site of Pampa la Cruz in Peru, and there is evidence that they are part of three different collective sacrifices dating back to 1250 A.D., making them the earliest collective children’s and animal sacrifices in the region. Similar large-scale sacrifices were later discovered in the region, and experts speculated that the Chimupeople living in the area thought that the El Nino effect might be mitigated by offering children and animals to the gods of heaven.
But Gabriel Prieto, an archaeologist at the University of Florida, said the earliest festival at the Pampa la Cruz site may have been politically motivated, and that the first was when the Chimus conquered the Lambeyeks living in the northern valley. It is likely that the sacrifice was a captured Lambeyek child. Another possibility of the festival is explained by the memory of Thetacam, the legendary founder of Chimou culture, who is said to have arrived by boat and then headed south, establishing Chimou’s capital, Chan Chan, in 1000 A.D.
8. The Denisovas living at high altitudes
About 40 years ago, a monk found an ancient human jaw bone in a white-stone cliff cave on the Tibetan Plateau at an altitude of more than 10,000 feet, dating back 160,000 years, and an analysis of the protein in his teeth by researchers showed it belonged to the Denisovans. Scientists previously had very little knowledge of the Denisovans, based on only partial excavations of individual remains, mainly in the Danisova cave in southern Siberia, which is 2,300 feet above sea level and about 1,750 miles northwest of the White Rock Cliff Cave on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, said Zhang Dongju, an archaeologist at Lanzhou University. The jaw bone shows that the Denisovans are geographically more geographically distributed than previously thought, and that they lived in higher elevations and in harsh conditions. “
Previous archaeologists have found a mutation in the Denisovan genetic material that allows them to adapt to high-altitude low-oxygen environments such as the Tibetan Plateau.
9. Hunnu’s exquisite gilded silver dragon handle
An international joint archaeologist discovered in the north-central part of Mongolia the luxurious mausoleums built by two nobles of the Hunnu Empire, and from the 3rd century BC to the 1st century AD, the Huns of eastern European sub-savannah nomads, who frequently invaded, and built a large number of fortifications by the Han Army in order to defend against the invasion of the Huns, eventually becoming part of the Great Wall of Han. Staff from the University of Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia and the Institute of Cultural Heritage and Archaeology of Henan Province, China, excavated and found luxury burials in two of the Hunnu tombs. In a larger tomb, they found a wooden box containing a silver ring, jade band hook and a pair of “gold-plated silver dragons”, which they speculated was the handle of a container.
Among the smaller tombs are the remains of a man, a horse-drawn carriage, 15 horse skulls and 19 silver equestrian ornaments, each depicting a unicorn god, and the archaeological team has found a mutilated sword inlaid with jade from the tomb.
10, the normanded silver coins in the cellar
On October 14, 1066, William the Conqueror defeated Harold Govinson, the last Anglo-Saxon king, at the Battle of Hastings, ushering in the Normandy Dynasty. Researchers at the British Museum say more than 2,500 silver coins have been found in south-west England from the two kings during the war, and archaeologists have analysed the patterns to reveal political upheaval during the period.
Archaeologists have found that most of the 1,236 silver coins engraved with the head of King Harold were minted in south-east England, suggesting that the local son was loyal to King Harold despite the imminent armed attack by William. By contrast, all 1,310 silver coins bearing king William’s head were issued after his Christmas coronation, indicating that William’s throne was universally recognized at the time. At the same time, they found an interesting phenomenon, when the cunning coin maker stooped during the turbulent period after Harold’s death, and the coins found in the excavation had two “tweezers” coins, one of which was the face of King Harold and the other was the face of the new King William. (Ye Ding Cheng)