Just past 2019, another extraordinary year in the history of human science and technology: China’s Chang’e-4 achieved the first soft landing of a human probe; the U.S. New Horizons probe completed the most distant interstellar “trump” in human exploration history; and the Event Horizon project released the first black hole photos obtained by humans. Shocked the world; Google’s team claimed “quantum supremacy”; AIDS treatment recreates Sugon… Some discoveries have promoted practical progress, while others have been controversial.
At the beginning of 2020, we look forward to a series of scientific events that are about to take place in the new year. These more complex and cutting-edge technologies, while seemingly distant, may have the potential to change the fate of mankind.
Lonely Mars, lively.
In 2020, moving towards Mars will be one of the most important scientific explorations in human history. Several countries will carry out Mars exploration missions with the arrival of the latest “Mars Day”.
Mars is more than 55 million kilometers from the closest point on Earth and more than 400 million kilometers farthest. Earth is closer to Mars every 26 months, and humans can send the rover to Mars in less time and shorter time, with the most recent “Mars Day” coming in July 2020. In view of this, China, the United States and Europe announced that they will launch spacecraft to Mars in 2020, more than 4 billion years of “lonely sandbar cold” Mars will become lively.
NASA will launch the Mars 2020 rover this summer, collecting and storing rock samples on Mars, leaving it to be brought back to Earth by future missions, along with a small detachable unmanned helicopter; It is planned to land on Mars in 2021; if the problem of landing parachutes can be solved, the European Space Agency’s Rosalind Franklin rover will take off with a Russian rocket, using a drill that can drill two meters below the surface to extract material that is not exposed to intense radiation. The material may contain evidence of life on Mars; the United Arab Emirates also plans to launch an orbiter toward sparks, which will be the first Mission to Mars by an Arab country.
Looking up at the stars, exploring the moon
In 2019, scientists made a splash when they used the Event Horizon telescope (EHT) to capture the first black hole photos. But this is only the beginning of the story.
The EHT team is expected to release new results this year on the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way, the Constellation of Man. ESA’s Gaia probe will also update the Milky Way’s three-dimensional map to give scientists a better understanding of its structure and evolution. In addition, gravitational wave astronomers will release cosmic impact data observed in 2019, including the intersection between black holes and previously unobserved collisions between black holes and stars.
Since man began to look up at the stars, his exploration of the unknown universe has never stopped. China’s Mission No. 5 is among the world’s leading scientific journals, Nature, which published an online article looking ahead to events that could have a major impact on the scientific community in 2020.
According to a recent CCTV report, this year, China’s lunar exploration project will complete the third phase of the mission – the launch of the Chang’e-5, the implementation of the lunar surface sampling return mission. After the Chang’e-5 probe reaches the surface of the moon, the flight control team will direct the probe to complete the sampling and return as planned.
In addition, more national exploration of the universe will continue: Japan’s Osprey 2 will send samples taken from the asteroid Dragon Palace back to Earth, and NASA’s “Source Spectroscopic Interpretation Resource Safety Weathering Layer Identification Probe” will continue to survey the asteroid “Benu” and “bite” a sample from it.
Biohealth, the way forward in the controversy
In the new year, scientists will continue to pay attention to the fate of human health, in addition to the sea of stars.
In July 2019, the Japanese government approved the first project to use animal-based human organs to grow human pancreas using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) in laboratory mice, which aims to confirm whether human organs can grow normally in animals for future transplantation using the technology. Although the study has been approved, it is still widely controversial. Some researchers believe that xenotransplantation still needs to overcome huge ethical and technological barriers, and that “organ-like” implants in the lab may be safer and more effective.
This year, a breakthrough is also expected in the fight against infectious diseases. In Yogyakarta, Indonesia, major tests of the technology to combat dengue transmission with Wolbachia will draw conclusions. In addition, the World Health Organization has offered to eliminate sleeping sickness by 2020.
In addition, the work of synthetic biologists to reconstruct bread yeast (brewing yeast) will be completed in 2020. Researchers have been able to synthesize the genetic code of simple organisms, such as the fernion, but doing this in yeast cells is more challenging because they are complex. The study, called Synthetic Yeast 2.0, was carried out in collaboration with 15 laboratories from four continents. The team has replaced 16 chromosomes of brewing yeast with synthetic DNA fragments.
They also tried to recombine and edit the yeast’s genome to understand how organisms evolved and how they responded to mutations. The researchers hope that engineering yeast cells will provide a more effective and flexible way to make a wide range of products, from biofuels to drugs.
Energy industry rookie son
In 2020, there will be many new achievements in the energy sector. Among them, the most anticipated is calcium titanium solar cells.
Compared to the silicon used in most panels today, calcium titanium concentrates are more efficient, less costly, and easier to manufacture. As a result, calcium-titanium solar cells have become the industry’s “new favorite”, and many companies plan to start selling the batteries in 2020.
In addition, Toyota Motor Corp. is expected to unveil its first solid-state battery-powered car prototype at the Tokyo Olympics in July 2020, replacing the liquid electrolyte in a conventional battery with a solid-state electrolyte. In unusual cases such as overcharging, liquid electrolyte batteries are prone to heat, which can cause spontaneous combustion or even explosion. Compared to liquid electrolyte batteries, solid electrolyte batteries can also solve safety problems while increasing the energy density of batteries.
Superconductor experts will also have a major breakthrough in 2020. They have been hoping to develop superconductors that can work at room temperature, a superconductor that, once available, would revolutionise the way electricity is transmitted and save a lot of energy. In 2018, an international team found that, under extreme pressure, hyperhydrogenized radon can exhibit superconductivity at minus 23 degrees Celsius, a big step towards room temperature superconductors. Researchers plan to continue their efforts in 2020 to produce ultra-hydrogenated niobium, a material that is expected to be superconducting at 53 degrees Celsius.
Super Collider Dream Upgrade
Cern, the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN), said it hoped to get more money by 2020 to promote a new generation of large-scale colliders, according to Xinhua. The giant collider is an important part of the meeting of the council to discuss the renewal of the European strategic plan for particle physics in Budapest in May 2020. The lab hopes to build a 100-kilometer-long machine that will be six times as powerful as the Large Hadron Collider and could cost as much as $23.4 billion.
Across the Atlantic, the U.S. Fermi National Laboratory will also publish the results of the Museg-2 experiment in 2020, which countless scientists are looking forward to. The experiment aims to make high-precision measurements of the behavior of muses in magnetic fields. Physicists hope to discover small anomalies that reveal previously unknown elementary particles, opening the door to new physics.