China’s top ten scientific and technological advances and the world’s top ten scientific and technological progress, voted by members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, were announced in Beijing on the 11th, “The first moon soft landing of the human probe” and “the first time mankind has seen a black hole” led the progress of China and the world’s top ten science and technology in 2019.
Pictured is a lunar landing effect map of the lander.d.O. National Defense Science and Technology Administration Lunar Exploration and Space Engineering Center For Map
The top 10 scientific and technological advances in China in 2019 by academicians include:
The Chang’e-4 achieved the first soft landing of the human probe. In January 2019, the Chang’e-4 probe successfully landed in the Von Carmen impact crater in the Aitken Basin on the back of the moon, and with the support of the “Bridge” relay star, the Chang’e-4 lander and the Jade Rabbit II rover carried out in-place exploration and inspection. At present, the work time on the back of the moon has exceeded 300 days, far beyond the design life, “Jade Rabbit 2” patrol to overcome various obstacles, driving range has also exceeded 300 meters, to achieve the “double three hundred” breakthrough.
Chinese astronomers have discovered the largest star-level black hole to date. In November 2019, the international scientific journal Nature published a major finding by liu Jifeng and Zhang Wei’s research team at the National Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences: Relying on China’s self-developed national major science and technology infrastructure, the Guo Shoujing Telescope (LAMOST), the research team discovered one of the largest stellar-scale black holes to date. It also provides a new way to use LAMOST’s advantages to find black holes. The 70-fold solar-mass black hole is well above the upper limit of the theoretical prediction, upsetting perceptions of star-level black hole formation and promising to revolutionize the theory of stellar evolution and black hole formation.
Chinese scientists have observed the three-dimensional quantum Hall effect for the first time. In collaboration with Zhang Liyuan of the Southern University of Science and Technology, the Qiao Zhenhua task force of The University of Science and Technology of China and Zhang Liyuan of the Southern University of Science and Technology have for the first time observed clear evidence of the three-dimensional quantum Hall effect in the millimeter-grade clybutt (ZrTe5) monocrystalline material, and pointed out that the effect may be induced by charge density waves caused by the interaction of magnetic fields. This important research was published online in May 2019 in the internationally renowned academic journal Nature. Since the discovery of the quantum Hall effect in 1980, the academic community has focused on two-dimensional systems, and this discovery of the three-dimensional quantum Hall effect has filled an important puzzle for the Hall effect family.
Chinese scientists have developed a new brain-like computing chip. After years of efforts, Chinese scientists have developed a new type of brain computing chip for artificial general intelligence, “Sky Movement”, and successfully experimented on driverless bicycles. Professor Shi Luping of Tsinghua University’s Brain Computing Research Center’s team’s paper, “Heterogeneous “Sky Movement” Chip Architecture for Artificial General Intelligence, was published in August 2019 in the form of a cover article in the international journal Nature.
The world’s first million kilowatt hydropower unit core components were completed and delivered. The first million kilowatt hydro-water turbine generator wheel developed and manufactured by Oriental Electric Group Oriental Electric Co., Ltd. was officially completed in January 2019 at the rotary plant at the power station site and delivered ahead of schedule. Design and development of a decade-long million kilowatt hydropower unit is the world’s largest single-machine capacity unit, but also China Hydropower to the world hydropower “no man’s land” launched the sprint. The most core of the whole unit, the most difficult to develop components is the wheel, can be called the “heart” of the unit. The wheel weighs a total weight of 353 tons, after 24 processes, by more than 100 Dongdian artisans took 12 months to “finely crafted” to complete.
Tai Chi-1 was successfully tested in orbit, and China’s space gravitational wave detection took the first ground-breaking step. The first phase of China’s first space gravitational wave detection technology experimental satellite was successfully completed in orbit. In September 2019, the satellite was named Tai Chi-1, and the chinese Academy of Sciences research team completed the “Tai Chi-1” development mission in less than a year. The results of the first phase of the in-orbit test of Tai Chi-1 show edgtosis of the laser interferometer displacement measurement to the hundred-meter magnitude, about the size of an atom, and the measurement accuracy of the gravitational reference sensor to reach one billionth of the acceleration of gravity, equivalent to the acceleration produced by an ant-propelled Tai Chi-1 satellite. The thrust resolution of the micro-thruster reaches the sub-micro-cow magnitude, which is about one-tenth the weight of a sesame seed.
New research suggests that about 24% of the material in nature may have a topology. In February 2019, three research groups from the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing University and Princeton University in the United States published new research results in the journal Nature suggesting that thousands of known materials may have a topological nature, meaning that about 24 percent of materials in nature may have topological properties. A topology that describes the nature of geometry or space that remains the same after a continuous change in shape. When the mathematical concept of topology was introduced into the field of physics, it promoted the development of basic physics research on the one hand, and also promoted the emergence of a large number of novel topological materials on the other.
Chinese scientists have analyzed the new mechanism for the capture of litanobacteria in the “Chiqi” photosynthesis species. A new study by the Institute of Plant Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has found how the natural “odd” photosynthesis species, diatoms, uses their unique structures to efficiently capture and utilize light energy. In February 2019, Beijing time, the well-known academic journal Science published the results online in a long article. Based on this research, scientists are expected to design new crops that can efficiently “catch light” in the future. Shen Jianren and Yan Tingyun of the Institute of Plant Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences analyzed the high-resolution structure of the main photosynthesis antenna protein of diatoms, which is the first photosynthesis protein structure analysis of diatoms, which provides an important structural basis for the study of photoenergy capture, utilization and light protection mechanism of diatoms.
China’s independent research and development of clinical full digital PET/CT equipment was allowed to enter the market. The full-digital PET/CT invented by Professor Xie Qingguo’s team at Huazhong University of Science and Technology was approved by the State Drug Administration at the end of May 2019 to obtain market access and external sales qualifications. This means that domestic all-digital PET breaks the international technology monopoly, China’s high-end medical equipment development has made a major breakthrough. PET is short for positron emission tomography, which is the most advanced medical imaging technology after ultrasound, CT and mr. magnetic resonance, and has great application value in the early diagnosis, evaluation of efficacy and pathology of major diseases such as malignant tumors, nervous system diseases and cardiovascular diseases.
Scientists have discovered fossils of the jawbones of the Denisovans 160,000 years ago. In May 2019, Chinese scientists, in conjunction with a number of domestic and foreign researchers, published an article in the journal Nature, said that a human jaw bone fossil found in the White Rock Cliff Cave in Xiahe County, in the northeastern Province of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at an altitude of 3,280 meters, has been identified as a danniesof fossil. The results of this study pushed the earliest period of human activity in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 40,000 years ago to 160,000 years ago, a full 120,000 years forward. The research team, led by Chen Fahu of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Associate Professor Zhang Dongju of the School of Resources and Environment of Lanzhou University and Professor Jean-Jacques Hublin of the Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology of the Map Society of Germany, conducted a systematic archaeological survey of the fossil discovery site and its surrounding areas for nearly a decade. The discovery of a large number of cultural relics that may coexist with the fossil provides key information for the in-depth study of the cultural connotations, behavior characteristics and high altitude environment adaptation strategies of the Denisova people.
The top ten news of the world’s scientific and technological progress in 2019 were:
Humans have “seen” a black hole for the first time. Hundreds of researchers involved in the “Event Vision Telescope” project held a simultaneous press conference around the world in April 2019 to release their first photograph of a black hole, the “main character” of the supermassive black hole at the center of the super-elliptical galaxy M87 in the constellation of Chamber, 6.5 billion times the mass of the sun. It is about 55 million light-years from Earth.
DNA microscope has been successfully developed. The Howard-Hughes Institute of Medicine and the Broad Institute have jointly developed “DNA Microscopy,” a new cell visualization technique that uses chemical means to obtain information about inside cells, and creates images that reflect the genetic sequence and relative position of biomolecules within cells. DNA microscopes can do things that optical microscopes can’t do. In June 2019, the study was published in the journal Cell.
The Ostrich 2 landed for the first time on the asteroid Dragon Palace and took samples. In February 2019, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) said that based on the data received, the asteroid probe Osprey 2 successfully landed on the asteroid Dragon Palace and collected samples before taking off again after a short stay.
Google researchers announce successful demonstration of “quantum advantage.” In October 2019, a team led by Google researchers published a paper in the British journal Nature saying it had successfully demonstrated “quantum advantages” that allowed quantum systems to complete tasks that traditional supercomputers could accomplish in a matter of days in about 200 seconds. “Quantum Advantage” is used to describe the key nodes of quantum computer development, which means that quantum computers can solve some special problems that traditional computers cannot solve within a reasonable time frame.
Scientists synthesize the world’s first pure carbon ring with 18 carbon atoms. In August 2019, Science published a collaboration between oxford university chemistry and IBM’s Zurich Research Laboratory, which synthesized the world’s first ring-like molecule, C18, made entirely of carbon atoms, 18 of which are connected by alternating single-key and nich. Early studies have found that C18 ring molecules have semiconductor properties, which means that similar carbon-straight-chain structures may become molecular-level electronic components.
New artificial DNA structure, information density can be doubled. In February 2019, a team led by Steven Benner of the Applied Molecular Evolution Foundation reported in the journal Science that the biggest difference between the new DNA molecular system they have synthesized and natural DNA is that it has eight, rather than four, vital information components. According to the introduction, DNA is stored in the genetic code, it is composed of four nucleotides, expressed in four different letters. U.S. researchers have developed a new eight-letter DNA structure with a double density of information storage that could be used in synthetic organisms in the future.
For the first time, the physiological age of the human body has been successfully reversed. A small clinical study in California, USA, has shown for the first time that reversing the body’s epigenetic biological clock is possible. Epigenetic biological clocks can be used to measure a person’s physiological age. Over a one-year period, nine healthy volunteers took three common drugs , growth hormone and two diabetes drugs. By analyzing the markers of the human genome, the researchers found that the average physiological age of these subjects was reduced by 2.5 years. At the same time, the subjects’ immune systems showed signs of rejuvenating. The findings were published in the September 2019 issue of the journal Aging Cells.
AIDS treatment miracle re-emerged, “London patients” or cured. According to a march 2019 paper in the journal Nature, an AIDS patient known as a “London patient” has not been detected with HIV for 18 months after a stem cell transplant. He may be the second person to be cured of AIDS after the “Berlin patient”, but experts are cautious that the efficacy still needs to be monitored on an ongoing basis. Compared to “Berlin patients” who received full-body radiotherapy, “London patients” received relatively mild chemotherapy. The researchers believe that the experience of “London patients” may be better replicated.
Scientists have developed a new Type of E. coli that can feed on carbon dioxide. In a new study published in Cell in November 2019, scientists at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel transformed a bacterium that usually feeds on monosaccharide so that it can build cells by absorbing carbon dioxide like a plant. This result opens up exciting new prospects for the use of engineering bacteria to convert products that people consider waste into fuels, food or other compounds of interest.
The world’s first Ebola vaccine has been approved by the European Union. In November 2019, European regulators approved a vaccine that has helped control a deadly outbreak of the Ebola virus, the first time a vaccine against the virus has been approved. The Ebola virus is a highly infectious virus that is transmitted mainly through bodily fluids and can cause fatal haemorrhagic fever. Previously, medical researchers had invested heavily in the development of an Ebola vaccine, but mostly in clinical trials, and Ervebo became the first Ebola vaccine officially approved for human use in humans and is expected to be available in the United States in the first quarter of 2020.
Academicians of the two houses voted for the annual China and the world’s top ten scientific and technological progress activities, sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the General Office of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the Chinese Science News Agency, has been successfully held 26 times so far, has had a wide impact on the community. (Complete)