Do you know who you are? If the answer is yes, can you guide your own actions? When others ask us who we are, we ask ourselves both. In the West, individualism is valued. We believe that we are dynamic in our actions and that our identity is not influenced by the world. We are unique and no one can stand for it.
The History of Identity Theory
There are two kinds of identity theories in the world: the same theory of the mind and brain (philosophical theory), and the theory of social identity (psychological theory). In the 1930s, psychologist E.G. Boring proposed the same theory of mind-brainness (also known as type-physicalism), in which the inner state of the mind can be divided into several types associated with physical activity in the brain. Later, psychologists Feigel and Smart distinguished between different feelings in the brain’s processes and classified them as the same physical phenomenon. The same theory of mind and brain holds that identity is a single, independent construct (i.e., the heart and brain are essentially the same thing).
In the 1970s and 1980s, psychologists Henri Tajfel and John Turner came up with the theory of social identity, claiming that the individual concept of a person came from his identity in social groups. The theory of social identity holds that because human identity is born out of interactions between communities (such as families, schools and communities) and the environment, in which the movement, competition, and creativity of members affect the identity of individuals, there is little room for self-motivation. Together, these two identity theories advance and protect our identity, and our brain networkdetermines how we respond to the environment. In addition, the reflection of human identity in social settings also helps the brain further confirm our true identity. Under the mechanism prescribed by these theories, we are able to gradually recover ourselves.
Brain Enhancement and Identity Theory
Brain enhancement is not a new theory. As early as the 1950s, Robert G. Heath suggested that electric currents could be used to stimulate patients to treat brain diseases. Later many doctors followed suit. Since then, the U.S. military has also begun experiments on brain control for military purposes. In 2000, the army transplanted micro-electromechanical systems into the brains of animals for experiments, which effectively controlled animals. Finally, the army developed the “Cyberberg Insects” and “Cyberg Shark” (i.e., animals used for espionage). It is worth noting that ECT (electroshock therapy) and TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation) are now used to treat mood disorders.
Thus, brain enhancement comes from the same theory of the heart and brain. In a sense, brain enhancement fulfills the core concept of the same round of the mind: that mental activity is related to the physical activity of the brain. By identifying these activities, you can monitor and control them so that they can be corrected to trigger the required physical resonance. This is the real brain enhancement.
The moral hazard of brain enhancement
The moral hazard stoain of brain enhancement is not hard to see. With the power of AI to control the back of the human brain, the whole person is controlled. From this point on, we begin to lose our autonomic momentum.
Innovation often involves certain risks, but addressing them can help drive innovation. On the moral boundary of brain enhancement, we have three things to keep in place:
1. Human testing is regulated by the FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) and NIH (Health Research Institute) and subjects are required to participate voluntarily. As can be seen from previous experiments, the cost of removing the transplant device is to be paid by the experimental party. If the subject wishes to retain the transplant device, the maintenance cost is the responsibility of the subject. The subject’s qualifications are strictly verified.
2. To meet the needs of society, find the right use case for brain enhancement. For example, if it is to treat diseases such as Parkinson’s, the use case will be better than other uses. If brain enhancement and post-transplant benefits, then other forms of brain enhancement can also be safely implemented.
3. Human actability needs to be reflected at every step. If someone chooses to transplant, he or she is responsible for that choice. Seeking a balance of rights between humans and AI is not easy, but it is not impossible to achieve.
Elon Musk and his company, Neuralink
Elon Musk has published a white paper and presented research under his Neuralink project, most notably neurowoven mesh transplantation. This transplant can grow in the human brain and eventually become an AI layer that covers the upper part of the brain, improving brain activity.
Elon Musk shows how the graft can be safely transferred to the human brain and maintain its efficacy, and how it can be combined with AI. He also suggested that the technique could improve mental illness or brain disease.
After sharing, the scientists discussed the possibility of treating the disease. AI supporters also show how AI advances every aspect of humanity. Indeed, in order to adapt to today’s AI era, we need a porting to help us improve our “performance”. As evolutionists call it “human-machine” evolution, humans will continue to evolve with the help of machines.
What is sci-fi? What is the truth?
Although we have achieved some success in AI brain enhancement, there is still a long way to go to transplant the human brain, or to use it to treat the condition. We still have to wait before the first verification occurs, as well as an in-depth study of its ethics.
The new research allows us to take into account many of the many aspects of future life – human mobility, moral conflict, security concerns, privacy issues, and health hazards.
Humans need time and resources to deal with these issues first, rather than focusing on the small fruits of innovation.
The future is difficult to define and the timeline is unclear. But if you can see the vision of human-machine evolution, it must be a remarkable step. In the AI era, this vision will eventually be realized. Do you want this to happen? Have we considered other effects? Whether in 2020 or beyond, these questions are inconclusive.