BEIJING, Jan. 13 (Xinhua) — According tomedia reports, string theory has a very strange speculation that the universe is filled with hundreds of nearly invisible particles, and long ago, these particles once formed a network of strings across the universe. Although not yet perfect, string theory is the “theory of all things” that is the closest to the truth. The imaginary particles just mentioned are called “axes”, and if they can be confirmed, they mean that we live in a vast “axis universe”.
The best thing about this theory is that it’s not a physicist’s paper, and it can’t be tested to prove it. Instead, with the microwave telescopes currently being built, we may be able to detect this vast network of strings in the near future.
And if we confirm the existence of the axis universe, we will take a big step towards finally solving the mystery of all things.
The Symphony of strings
Next, let’s talk about how we can do that. First, we need to learn more about the axes. The shaft was named by physicist and Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek in 1978. The name is based on physicists’ assumptions that the particle originated from a particular type of symmetry.
There is a symmetry called CP symmetry, which holds that if the coordinates of matter and antimatter are exchanged, the two should behave exactly the same. But this symmetry does not seem to fit naturally with the theory of strong nuclear forces. To solve this mystery, another symmetry in the universe can be introduced to “correct” this misbehavior. However, this new symmetry can only be achieved at very high energy levels. In the daily low-energy state, this symmetry disappears. To make up for this, physicists have come up with axes.
Next, let’s talk about string theory. For years, scientists have tried to explain all natural forces, including gravity, with a uniform theoretical framework. String theory is one of the mainstream frameworks. But for a variety of reasons, the problem is very difficult. First of all, if string theory is to be established, the universe has not only three spatial dimensions and one time dimension, but also several additional spatial dimensions.
These extra dimensions are certainly invisible to the naked eye, or we would have noticed them. As a result, these extras must be very small in size and curl up on very small scales, thus avoiding conventional detection.
The most difficult thing is that we don’t know how these extra dimensions are rolled, and they can be rolled up to 10,200 ways. But they all seem to have one thing in common, that is, there are axes. Because according to string theory, the axis is the particles that are wound and fixed around these curling dimensions.
In addition, string theory not only predicts an axis, but may have hundreds of different types and qualities, including axes that may appear in the prediction of strong nuclear force theory.
So now we have a lot of different types of particles of different mass. But can axes make up dark matter? In this regard, we can only say “maybe”. But the theory that “axes make up dark matter” needs to be observed and tested, so some researchers decided to focus on the lighter category of the axis family and try to find them.
And when the researchers began to excavate the behavior of light-haired axes in the early universe, they found something amazing. The universe experienced a series of transitions in the early days of its birth, from an odd state of high energy to a conventional state of low energy.
These phases occur when the universe is born less than a second away. In this process, the axes in string theory are not particles, but are presented as rings and lines, forming a very light, almost invisible network that spans the entire universe.
This imaginary “axis universe” is filled with a variety of axis strings. However, only string theory makes such predictions. Therefore, if it can be proved that we really live in the axis universe, it will be a major support for string theory.
Transformation of light
How do we search for these axes? The relevant model predicts that the mass of the axis strings is extremely light, so the light does not change direction when it collides with the axis, and the axis may not interact with other particles at all. There may be millions of axis strings floating in the Milky Way, and we simply don’t see them.
But the universe is so vast and ancient that we can take advantage of that. And we have realized that there is a “background light” in the universe. Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is the oldest light in the universe and has existed since the “childhood” of the universe (about 380,000 years of its formation). For tens of billions of years, the universe has been bathed in these rays. These rays also spread through the universe without scruples until they hit something and blocked their way, such as our microwave telescopes.
So when we look at the cosmic microwave background, what we see is the universe in the tens of billions of light-years. If there was a huge axis string in the universe, we might notice it, just as it did with a flashlight lighting up a cobweb.
In a paper published on December 5, 2019, published on the paper’s preprint site arXiv, the researchers calculated the possible effects of the axis universe on cosmic microwave background light. It turns out that the way the light passes next to the axis string may change the direction of the light’s polarization. This is because the cosmic microwave background light (and all other light) is made up of electric and magnetic field waves, the direction of the light’s polarization determines the direction of the electric field, and when the cosmic microwave background light meets the axis, the direction of the electric field changes. We can capture this effect by using a specific filter to determine the polarization direction of the cosmic microwave background light.
The researchers found that if the universe were filled with axis strings, it would change the polarization direction of about 1% of the cosmic microwave background light. That’s exactly the limit of our current detection capabilities. But scientists are designing a new generation of cosmic microwave background mapping devices, such as the Cosmic Origins Probe, LiteBIRD and the Primitive Expansion Probe (PIXIE). These new telescopes can capture the clues of the axis universe. By the time they take office, we’ll be able to determine whether we live in an axis universe or rule out the prediction of string theory.
Whatever the outcome, there are many problems that need to be solved.