Beijing time on January 14, according tomedia reports, every moment, the human body is happening a lot of incredible things, some even beyond our current understanding. In 2019, doctors and scientists around the world have made many surprising discoveries, and new insights have been made about the processes that occur within the human body, including how certain diseases develop, how the body’s amazing ability to adapt to it, and why the skeletal features that once appeared on the ferry bird have re-evolved in some people.
The full significance of these findings may take years to be known. After all, the three scientists who won this year’s Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine discovered how human cells adapt to oxygen levels in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Only time will tell how these latest discoveries will affect future life technologies and treatments, and it is certain that the human body’s possibilities are limitless.
Humans can re-bioware bones.
A paper published in the October 2019 issue of Science Advances says humans have the ability to regrow cartilage, a process similar to the process by which a dragonfly re-grows its tail. “We found that human cartilage can be repaired, but the best place to repair is the ankle, the knee is intermediate, and the hips are at lower levels,” said Virginia Byers Krauss of the Department of Orthopaedics and Rheumatology pathology at Duke University School of Medicine. “This may be why abrasive arthritis or osteoarthritis is more common in the hips and knees than on the ankles.
The researchers also found that a class of molecules called microRNA also controls the repair process of human cartilage. Dr Krauss said: “This finding is significant because it means that adding these microRNAs to human joints may be a new way to treat osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the United States and around the world. “Furthermore, this discovery could pave the way for the regeneration of other tissues, such as human limbs, in the future.
The body will move a year after death.
Scientists still don’t fully understand what happens to the body after death. However, a new finding could be of great significance to crime scene investigators. Using time-lapse photography, the researchers found that the body could carry out many movements within a year of death. “In the study, I expected to see some early-stage movements, such as abdominal swelling and post-mortem stiffness,” said Alison Wilson, a student at the University of Central Queensland who studies forensic science in Australia. Earlier this year, she published preliminary posthumous delays in forensic science: Synergy. She also said her latest findings will be published in a journal of forensic science by the end of 2019.
Alison Wilson said: “The study found that all the limbs of the body continued to move during the 16-month study. This is an unexpected discovery, and the scale of physical activity is quite striking. “For example, an arm that was originally attached to the torso can move outwards. “As far as I know, no research has been done to quantify human posthumous movements,” she said. “
There may be a “painful organ.”
Believe it or not, scientists have even discovered entirely new “organs” that they didn’t know existed inside the body. According to a study published in the August issue of Science, there is a grid-like network of cells inside the skin that can sense pain. Patrick Ernfors, professor of medical biochemistry and biophysics at the Karolinska School of Medicine in Stockholm, Sweden, says that contrary to the widely held view of nerve endings for pain-perceived pain, “our study shows that these nerves are wrapped in a previously unknown type of cell in the skin. Be able to respond to pain stimulation and turn on pain perception.” These cells “form a mesh structure with the nerves, forming a sensory end organ under the outer layer of the skin, playing an active role in the perception of harmful stimuli.” This finding may be important for chronic pain disorders. “We’re working on it, but we haven’t had the final answer yet,” Dr. Enforth said.
Your brain controls how you listen in the crowd.
Have you ever wondered how your brain can focus on what someone is saying when you’re at a raucous party or restaurant? In a study that may have contributed to the advancement of hearing aid technology, scientists have discovered how the brain determines the mechanisms in which attention is paid to a sound. The results of the study were published in the October issue of neuron.
“When we’re in a noisy, sound-filled room, we can block almost all of the sounds and just focus on the person we want to hear,” said Dr. Nima Mesgarani, a neuroengineer at Columbia University’s Zuckerman Institute. We looked at how different parts of the auditory cortex (the areas of the brain that process hearing) are involved in solving this challenging cognitive problem, and showed how these regions interact to select the target voice. “
The brain can adapt to having a sixth finger.
There have been many discoveries about the brain this year, and from these exciting findings we know that the brain is much more flexible than we thought. In a study published in the June issue of the journal Nature Communications, scientists found that two people with six fingers, commonly referred to as “multi-finger malformations,” were more flexible in manipulating objects than with motion disturbances. Mr. MRI shows that the brain actually knows how to use and control additional fingers.
“Our subjects can use extra fingers independently or with five other fingers, which is very flexible and skilled,” Dr. Carsten Mehring, a professor of neurobiology and neurotechnology at Freiburg University in Germany, said in a statement. Subjects can perform a task that usually requires two hands with one hand. “This discovery may have a significant impact on the development of prosthetics.
There’s more microbiome bacteria in the human body.
Scientists have been studying the microbiome in the human body and have revealed many new ideas about these tiny creatures. In a study published in January in the journal Cell, the largest of its kind, researchers found thousands of new microbes that we didn’t know before, forming a microbiome, a collection of “good” bacteria in our bodies.
Dr Nicola Segata, a computational biologist at the University of Trento in Italy, said: “For decades, extensive research has been done on the human microbiome, but there are still many bacteria that we have never seen and described, in our bodies. In this study, we’ve done a lot of work to classify these still-elusive bacteria as much as possible. “
“Clearly, there is still a lot of work to be done in the field of microbiome research, and the resources available allow us to investigate the composition of the human microbiome more comprehensively,” he added. Identifying the link between these microorganisms and diseases may be instructive for the development of new treatments.
Small knee bones left over from history
Why would a small piece of knee bone that disappeared in the evolution of the human body reappear? The problem is hard for researchers. They studied 21,000 knee studies over 150 years and found that 11 percent of people owned the bone 100 years ago, but now 39 percent. Their findings were published in the April issue of the Journal of Anatomy.
This small bone is called the small bean bone, is a seed bone. Dr Michael Berthaume, a bioengineer at Imperial College London, said: “We found that this small bean bone, which is located behind the knee, is appearing in people today about three times as often as it was more than 100 years ago. What makes this seed bone really strange is that other seed bones in the human body today are as common as ever. “
What is the reason behind the re-emergence of the small bean bone? “On average, people are now better nourished than before, and better nutrition means that people are heavier and have longer bones, and people walk around their knees with more strength and torque,” says Michael Bessom. “It may also be why people with arthritis are more likely to develop small bean bones.
“In this day and age, most people think of general anatomy as a ‘dead science’, but it’s exciting to see such dramatic changes in the human body,” Dr. Bessom said. Considering that this bone was not common 100 years ago.
Left-handed-specific genomic region
Why are some people left-handed? Researchers may have found the answer. In a study published in the September issue of the journal Brain, scientists analyzed the genomes of 400,000 people and found several gene regions associated with bias, which are also related to brain development and structure. “This study is significant because it provides basic biological clues that lead to left-handedness in humans,” said Dr. Gwenelle Douaud, an assistant professor at the University of Oxford and a member of the Medical Research Council. The study is the first to show that the left hand is driven by the complex interactions of many genes that also contribute to brain tissue, especially in language regions. “
White blood cells help form gallstones
Doctors have long known that gallstones are made up of cholesterol and calcium salts, but it wasn’t until a study published in the september issue of immunology that they knew exactly how they were glued together. The researchers examined the “sludge” extracted from human gallbladders.
“We studied the formation of gallstones and found that white blood cells are the cause of gallbladder crystallizing, ” said Dr. Martin Herrmann, an immunologist at the University Hospital of Elangen in Germany. Understanding this process may lead to new options for the treatment of recurrent gallstone disease in the future. “
Brain biomarkers in PTSD patients linked to suicidal thoughts
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the eight most common health problems faced by veterans, and people with the disease are more likely to commit suicide than the general population. But it’s not so easy to know which patient is most at risk and how to treat it. The researchers, who published a study in the May issue of proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggest that they may have found a clue through brain imaging.
“We found that the location of a chemical in the brain in PTSD patients may be different than in the control group or in patients with depression, which may be related to suicidal thoughts in ptSD patients,” said Dr. Irina Esterlis, an assistant professor of psychiatry at Yale University in the United States. This work is important because currently only two FDA-approved drugs for PTSD, neither specifically developed specifically for PTSD, can take weeks to months to come into play. “
In addition, there are no FDA-approved treatments to help people with PTSD reduce suicidal thoughts. If manipulating the brain chemical works, Dr. Estelis said, the discovery “would be a major breakthrough that will alleviate the suffering of many individuals and their families.”
Fibromyalgia can be detected by blood samples
Some people still do not believe in fibromyalgia, a pain disorder, and the diagnosis of the disease is still difficult. However, researchers may have found evidence and treatment for the disease. In a study published in the Journal of Biochemistry in March, researchers used a new method to discover the molecular characteristics of fibromyalgia, which can be reliably detected in blood samples. The discovery may provide new targets for drug treatment of the disease.
“Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain caused by abnormal treatment of central pain,” said Kevin Hackshaw, M.D., a rheumatologist at Ohio State University’s Wexner Medical Center. A repeatable and objective marker for identifying fibromyalgia can confirm the presence of the disease. “While more research is needed, he hopes to be able to get blood tests for the disease within five years.”
Even if there is no olfactory area, the brain can smell.
If you think our sense of smell only needs to be used in the nose, a study published in the November issue of Neuron will tell you that smell is not that simple. Olfactory balls are thought to be the brain structure responsible for handling odors, but a recent study of two women found that they still have a good sense of smell even without anatomically sense of olfactory. More studies have found that it is estimated that about 0.6 percent of women may still have a normal sense of smell without a sniffing ball.
“The results of the results of the participants without a sniffer ball have a normal sense of smell are significant,” said Dr. Tali Weiss of the Department of Neurobiology at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. While it’s not clear exactly why some people don’t have a olfactory ball or smell, Dr Weiss says one possibility is that the brain can create a “smell map” outside the olfactory ball; If you don’t think you can smell it the way you used to, it may be a medical reason that makes you lose your sense of smell.
Defects in cell death can lead to autoimmune diseases
There is much more to know about autoimmune diseases and the inflammation that can cause them. In a study published in the November issue of Cell Reports, researchers found that dying white blood cells have a protein that sends “find me” and “eat me” signals to other cells, allowing them to clear them (a normal process of cell procedural death). Millions of cells die every day). However, if the protein is defective, the dead immune cells may not be able to be removed from the body. “Defects in this process can trigger a variety of inflammatory diseases, such as autoimmune diseases,” Dr. Georgia Atkin-Smith, a biochemist at the Australian Research Institute for Molecular Sciences, said in a statement. For the first time, we have a new understanding of the potential causes of these diseases. “
The brain reacts to memory enhancers.
Memory loss of Alzheimer’s and Alzheimer’s disease may not be as permanent as we think. A study published in the April issue of the journal Nature Neuroscience found that harmless electrical currents stimulate the brain to work better. “We’ve developed a new program that applies safe, non-invasive, and extremely weak currents to the human brain,” said Dr. Robert Reinhart, an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology and Brain Sciences at Boston University. Then, using this new method, the researchers found that they could precisely change the way communication is made in specific areas of the brain.
“The results significantly improve the plasticity of the brain (the natural ability of the brain to repair itself) and improve the short-term memory ability of healthy adults between the ages of 60 and 70, which can last more than 50 minutes,” Dr. Reinhardt said. These treatments will be available for people with memory problems, such as those with Alzheimer’s disease. “
DNA may be just one of many genetic molecules in the human body.
DNA may be just one part of the body’s genetic material. You may also have heard of RNA, or RNA, which plays a role in gene coding, translation, and regulation. In a study published in the Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling in September, scientists used computational techniques to find that if life had not evolved DNA to do the job, There may be more than a million similar variants that play a role in the inheritance. These molecules may help scientists propose new gene-based disease therapies that could also raise questions about the evolution of life as we know them.
“It’s very exciting to think about the potential of alternative genetic systems that may appear and evolve in different environments, and even on other planets or moons in the solar system,” Dr. Jay Goodwin, a biochemist at Emory University in the United States, said in a statement. “