In 2020, the Sun, Earth and Mars will form a straight line, and the distance between Earth and Mars will be the shortest, at less than 54 million kilometers, which will not be repeated until 2022, according to Western media. So 2020 will coincide with the Mars launch window, there will be four Mars launch missions, three led by the United States, the European Union and China, each trying to make its own probe successfully landed on Mars, the first to find signs of life.
Ken Farley, chief scientist for NASA’s Mars Mission 2020, explained that the Mars exploration mission would be accompanied by a recent launch of indian orbiters and private companies such as Space Exploration Technologies, explaining that the Mars exploration mission will be “growing” in addition to the above-mentioned projects. enthusiasm for landing on Mars.
Half of the missions to Mars failed, the report said. Landing on Mars requires the spacecraft to drop from 21,000 kilometers per hour to zero in just seven minutes, a process that is barely helped by a much thinner Martian atmosphere than Earth’s, and is also affected by the weather, which is not uncommon for temperatures to reach minus 100 degrees Celsius on desolate Mars.
In 2016, the ExoMars spacecraft was hit by strong winds, moving like a giant pendulum, and although it was still tied to a parachute, its altitude sensor suddenly pointed to the horizon, and the on-board computer mistakenly thought the spacecraft had landed, shutting down the rocket early, and exoMars crashing into the icy surface of Mars. The mission demonstrated that the European Space Agency’s ExoMars 2020 must use new landing technology.
In addition to the three missions mentioned above, the fourth Mars mission was developed with the help of U.S. scientists, the report said. The launch windows for the four missions are very similar, starting in mid-July and ending in mid-August. It will take seven months to reach the red planet, so the landing time should be February 2021.
“Our main goal is to find signs of life on Mars 3.5 billion years ago, when much of the planet was covered with liquid water, ” explains Ken Farley, a geochemist at caltechcade. “NASA’s rover will land at the bottom of an ancient lake hundreds of meters deep. “In places like this, microbes can survive as if they were on Earth without any problems, ” he said. “Another goal of the United States is to pave the way for future astronauts to the Red Planet.
“The bright spot of the Mars missions in the United States and Europe is that they carry a new generation of Raman spectrometers that can detect biomarkers over long distances,” explains Jorge Pragarcia, an astrophysicist at the Centre for Astrobiology in Madrid. “
Ken Farley also said the U.S. Mars rover carries tools that can encapsulate and store interesting samples of Mars so future missions can bring it back to Earth. Both the United States and China hope to complete the mission by 2030, and the European Union and the United States have begun similar cooperation and will begin the mission in 2026.