Both the Shi Zhengli team of Wuhan Virus Research Institute and Zhang Yongzhen of Shanghai Fudan University School of Public Health published papers today confirming that the new coronavirus comes from bats and is highly similar to SARS.
Source: Chi-Chi Academic Circle
Infectious Diseases: Analysis of China’s New Coronary Virus
A paper published online in Nature identified and characterized a new type of coronavirus that recently triggered an outbreak of respiratory disease in China, revealing its similarity to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus. The analysis found evidence that the new coronavirus originated in bats, but the animal source of the outbreak has yet to be confirmed.
Shi Zhengli and his colleagues analyzed samples of seven patients with severe pneumonia, six of whom were workers at the Wuhan Seafood Market, which had seen the first cases in December 2019. The researchers found that the full-length genome sequences obtained in five of the patients were almost identical to each other (more than 99.9 percent of similarity), consistent with 79.5 percent of the SARS coronavirus sequences. In addition, the researchers found that the virus sequence was as similar to a bat coronavirus at the genome level of up to 96 percent, suggesting that bats may be the source of the coronavirus.
Fig. 1 . . . Genome character of 2019-nCoV. A, pie safle chart metagenomics analysis of next-generation sabring of broncho alveolar lavage fluid from patient ICU0 6。 b, Genomic organization of 2019-nCoV WIV04. c, Similarity plot on the full-length genome of 2019-nCoV WIV04. Full-length genomes of SARS-CoV BJ01, bat sequence SARSr-CoV WIV1, bat coronavirus RaTG13 and ZC45 have used as as equences.d, Phylogene tree cause on nucleotide ss of genomes of coronaviruses. Software used and settings can be found in material and section.
The researchers found that seven identified and sequenced non-structural proteins were also present in the SARS coronavirus, indicating that the virus was a SARS-related coronavirus, which the authors temporarily named the new coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV). They confirmed that 2019-nCoV entered the cell in the same path as the SARS coronavirus, which is through ACE2 cell receptors. Antibodies isolated from patients infected with 2019-nCoV show the potential to neutralise the virus at low serum dilution, but whether anti-SARS virus antibodies can cross-react with 2019-CoV still needs to be confirmed with serum from patients recovered from SARS virus infection.
The authors developed a test that could distinguish 2019-nCoV from all other human coronaviruses and showed that 2019-nCoV was detected in the original oral swab sample, but subsequently (about ten days later) the sample did not show positive viral results. The findings suggest that the most likely route of transmission of the virus is through the individual’s respiratory tract, although the authors note that other pathways are also possible and that more patient data is needed to further study the route.
The sequencing data that supported the study’s findings can be found in GISAID, with registration numbers EPI_ISL_402124, EPI_ISL_402127-402130, and EPI_ISL_402131. *
Related links https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2012-7
Infectious Diseases: Genome Sequences of China’s New Coronary Virus
Nature today published a genome sequence of the virus associated with an outbreak of respiratory disease in China, obtained from a patient working in a seafood market where the first patients appeared. Genomic analysis showed that the virus was closely related to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses previously found in bats in China.
Zhang Yongzhen and his colleagues studied a 41-year-old male seafood market worker who was admitted to a hospital in Wuhan on December 26, 2019, showing symptoms of respiratory illness, including fever, chest tightness and cough. The treatment was treated with antibiotics, antivirals and glucocorticoids, but the patient showed respiratory failure and did not improve after three days of treatment.
Fig. 1 . . . Genome organization of SARS and SARS-like CoVs leis, CoVZC45 and WHCV dinghere.
The authors sequenced the genome of bronchol irrigation fluid (pulmonary secretions) collected from patients. They identified a new type of virus and found that the virus genome was 89.1% similar to the SARS-like coronavirus found in bats. Although it is not possible to conclude from the analysis of individual patients that the coronavirus is the cause of the current outbreak, the authors’ findings have been confirmed by independent studies of other patients.
The sequence obtained in this study can be found in ncBI’s SRA database (BioProject registration number PRJNA603194). The viral genome has been deposited with GenBank, registration number MN908947. *