BEIJING, Nov. 6 (Xinhua) — A new study says some black holes may actually be dark energy clusters, raising questions about mainstream astrophysical theories. Researchers at the University of Hawaii at Manoa came to this conclusion by re-examining the mathematical equations that explain the expansion of the universe. Scientists generally believe that black holes are areas where gravity is too strong in space for light to escape.
At the heart of a black hole is the so-called oddity, with a near-infinite mass and gravitational pull that bends the space and time around it. However, in the new study, the researchers suggest that objects that look like black holes may have dark energy cores.
Dark energy acts in contrast to gravity, and physicists use dark energy to explain why the universe’s expansion rate is increasing. Mainstream theory holds that dark energy exists evenly in the universe, but in 1966 a Russian scientist came up with a radical theory that dark energy forms polymers.
In two recent new studies, astrophysicist Kevin Croker and mathematician Joel Weiner suggest that such dark-energy objects fit perfectly with the equation of cosmic expansion. Of course, these objects exist only in theory, and their peculiar properties (such as mass as the universe expands) can explain some of the unsolved mysteries. For example, if the collision of a black hole is made up of dark energy, the mass of the merged black hole that scientists discovered in 2016 could be easier to explain.
The universe is not only expanding, but also expanding faster and faster over time.
Researchers at the University of Hawaii studied the Friedman equation, which is based on Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which explains how mass and energy distort space and time, and mathematically describehow how the universe expands. Previously, scientists who studied Friedman’s equation sedited that it was not necessary to consider the internal properties of ultra-high-density isolated objects such as neutron stars and black holes, but to think of matter as being evenly distributed.
However, Professor Crocker and Professor Weiner found that these ultra-high density areas needto be mathematically considered to be accurate lying about their impact on the universe. “We’ve shown that there’s only one way to build these equations right,” Professor Crocker told the media. “
“For 80 years, we’ve been studying the assumption that the universe is largely influenced by the specifics of any small region, ” Professor Crocker said. ” And the universe is trillions of times larger. “
For the merged black holes discovered in 2016 (imagine), changes in mass would be easier to explain if the collisioned black hole were to be changed to a dark-energy generic
The two scientists believe that the black hole may actually be an ultra-high density cluster of dark energy, rather than a wonder that has a gravitational edge that becomes infinite, known as the “Generic Objects of Dark Energy”, or GEODEs.
Dark energy is an imaginary form of energy that exerts negative pressure on the universe, counteracting the effects of gravity and explaining why it is expanding at an accelerated rate. In the currently widely accepted model, dark energy is an inherent property of space-time, present evenly throughout the universe, rather than concentrating on some kind of dark energy generic.
Russian physicist Erast Gliner first proposed the concept of dark-energy generics in 1966, which he believes is formed by the collapse of very large stars. If dark energy generics exist, they can contain all the dark energy and explain why the universe seems to be expanding at an accelerated rate. “If we think that black holes actually don’t have any oddity, then the accelerated expansion of the universe is naturally the result of Einstein’s general theory of relativity, ” Dr. Crocker said.
According to the researchers, Friedman’s equations show that over time, dark-energy generics acquire mass, even as the universe expands, leaving them with no material to consume.
We can also observe similar but opposite phenomena in light. As the space passes, light loses energy in an effect called redshift, and in the case of matter, it loses mass. Although the effect is small and almost negligible, it can be very significant for ultra-density objects such as dark-energy generics. Although dark energy acts in the opposite way to normal energy and matter, it acquires, rather than loses, mass or energy.
“Light is a strange thing. In many ways, it behaves in the opposite way to intuition,” Professor Crocker said. But our research shows that, yes, you can see it on another object. “
Although dark-energy generics are still in the hypothetical stage, their presence will help solve some mysteries for physicists. In 2016, for example, scientists at the U.S. Laser Interference Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) reported that they had observed for the first time gravitational waves from the merger of two black holes. However, they found that the mass of black holes was unusual, either higher than predicted or lower than predicted. To explain this phenomenon, the LIGO team had to position the origins of the two black holes in a so-called “low metal abundance” space, where elements heavier than hydrogen and helium are lower and therefore very rare.
However, if these two black holes are actually dark-energy generics, their strange mass can be simply explained: they have acquired mass as a result of the expansion of the universe since its formation. “Our study shows that if dark-energy generics do exist, they can easily lead to the phenomena currently observed, and there is no convincing explanation for these phenomena,” Professor Crocker and Weiner said. We have just taken the first step. “
Other scientists, however, remain sceptical. Professor Vitor Cardoso, a physicist at the Institute of Advanced Technology in Lisbon who was not involved in the study, said it was “counterintuitive and incomprehensible”. However, he also believes that it is valuable to explore this possibility.
“I like the alternative theory of looking for black holes, which forces us to reinforce the paradigm of black holes, ” says Professor Cardoso. ” “
Crocker and others have written two papers on their findings, one in the recent Astrophysical Journal and the other in the preprinted website arXiv, which has not yet been peer-reviewed.
What is dark energy?
Physicists use dark energy to describe a mysterious “thing” that can lead to unusual phenomena in the universe. The universe is full of matter, and gravity pulls all matter together. By 1998, observations of very distant supernovae by the Hubble Space Telescope showed that the universe expanded much more slowly than it does today.
As a result, the expansion of the universe has not been slower and slower as one might think (after all, the Big Bang has been nearly 14 billion years), but it has been expanding at an accelerated rate over time. No one expected this, and no one knew how to explain it. But scientists believe it must be something that causes this phenomenon.
In the mainstream theory, dark energy is some kind of energy acting on the space-time structure itself, and it is uniform negative pressure, which causes the space-time structure to expand. Dark energy is filled with space and is a good illustration of current observations of the accelerated expansion of the universe. In the standard model of the universe, dark energy accounts for about 68.3% of the mass energy of the universe. (Any day)