Nature publishes paper analyzing cases from South China seafood market

Nature published two papers on the new coronavirus by Shi Zhengli’s team of Wuhan Virus Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Zhang Yongzhen of Fudan University online, analyzing sample data from patients in the South China seafood market.

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Zhang Yongzhen’s team obtained the virus genome from a patient in a seafood market, which showed that the virus was closely related to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses previously found in bats in China.

The paper is accepted on January 7, 2020 and the paper is accepted on January 28, 2020.

Nature publishes paper analyzing cases from South China seafood market

Sample background

Zhang Yongzhen and colleagues studied samples taken from a 41-year-old male seafood market worker, and the paper showed the epidemiological findings of the Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Control, which sold fish and crustaceans, as well as a variety of wildlife, including hedgehogs, dragonflies, snakes and birds(doves), and was filled with animal carcasses and animal meat. But no bats are available for sale. The patient reported that he may have been exposed to wild animals on the market, but not live birds.

He was admitted to a hospital in Wuhan on 26 December 2019 with symptoms of respiratory illness, including fever, chest tightness and cough. The treatment was treated with antibiotics, antivirals and glucocorticoids, but the patient showed respiratory failure and did not improve after three days of treatment.

Nature publishes paper analyzing cases from South China seafood market

Six days after the onset of the disease, the left lung was visible.

Sample analysis

The study sequenced the genome of broncho leaching fluid (pulmonary secretions) collected from patients. They identified a new viral genome (i.e. the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV) in genetic data and found that the virus genome was 89.1% similar to the SARS-like coronavirus SL-CoVZC45 found in bats.

In addition, the genome sequence of the new coronavirus was compared in depth with the genetic sequences of two coronaviruses, including the human-derived coronavirus SARS-CoV and the bat-sourced coronavirus SL-CoVZC45. The results showed that the dna sequence terminal domain of the typical beta coronavirus in the gene sequence of the new coronavirus was highly similar to SARS-CoV in multiple open reading boxes (protein coding areas).

Nature publishes paper analyzing cases from South China seafood market

A systematic evolutionary analysis of its complete viral genome showed that the virus was most similar to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses (beta-beta, Sarbecovirus subspecies). Based on the above data, the paper points out that bats are still the most likely natural hosts of the new coronavirus. But because there are a lot of other animals in the seafood market, whether the new coronavirus comes from bats, the specific intermediate host is what needs further research to come to the conclusion.

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Another study by Shi Zhengli’s team identified and characterized the new coronavirus, revealing its similarity to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus. The analysis also found evidence that the new coronavirus originated in bats, but more research is needed from intermediate host sources.

The thesis will be accepted on January 20, 2020 and the paper will be accepted on January 29, 2020. The paper was previously published on January 23rd on the preprinted website bioRxiv.

Nature publishes paper analyzing cases from South China seafood market

Sample background

Shi Zhengli’s team’s study analyzed samples of seven patients with severe pneumonia, six of whom were workers at the Wuhan seafood market. The paper points out that clinicians identified these patients as viral pneumonia based on clinical symptoms and elevated body temperature, lymphocytes, white blood cell reduction (sometimes normal), chest tablets of new lung dips, and no significant improvement after 3 days of antibiotic treatment.

The virus that will cause this viral pneumonia is called the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV. Of course, during the receipt and publication of the paper, scientists have also been more aware of the clinical symptoms of the new coronavirus and the way the virus spreads. The discussion here is based on the time it takes to obtain samples and data.

Sample analysis

The viral full-length genome sequences obtained by the researchers in five of the patients were almost identical to each other (more than 99.9 percent similarity), consistent with 79.5 percent of the SARS coronavirus sequences. In addition, the researchers found that the new coronavirus has 96 percent homologousity at the whole genome level with a bat coronavirus, i.e. the sequence of the virus is as similar as 96 percent to a bat coronavirus at the whole genome level, suggesting that bats may be the source of the coronavirus.

Nature publishes paper analyzing cases from South China seafood market

In order to analyze the relationship between the new coronavirus and SARS-CoV, the sequence of seven conservative non-structural proteins of the two viruses was analyzed. The results show that the non-structural protein of the new coronavirus is also present in SARS coronavirus, indicating that the virus is a coronavirus associated with SARS.

Nature publishes paper analyzing cases from South China seafood market

2019-CoV observed under the electric mirror

In addition, the paper confirms that the path of 2019-nCoV into the cell is the same as the SARS coronavirus, which also completes the infection through ACE2 cell receptors. Antibodies isolated from patients infected with 2019-nCoV have the potential to neutralise the virus at low serum dilution.

However, it is not clear whether anti-SARS virus antibodies can be neutralised in 2019-CoV, the study suggests, this needs to be confirmed by serum antibodies in patients recovered from SARS virus infection.

The study notes that the most likely route of transmission of the virus is through the individual’s respiratory tract, but other routes are not impossible, and more patient data is needed to further study the route of transmission.