What is the best medical technology in the world? The Revolutionary Innovation of Rabies Vaccine

Beijing time, September 23 news, according to foreign media reports, what is the world’s best medical technology? What drugs can save humanity, or what medical technologies make a huge contribution to human development?

世界上最好的医学技术是什么?狂犬病疫苗革命性创新

Bert Hansen

Professor of Science and Medical History, Baruch College, City University of New York, USA, has written “Medical Progress from Pasteur to Polio.”

“The rabies vaccine has changed the basic expectations of doctors. “

世界上最好的医学技术是什么?狂犬病疫苗革命性创新

Despite the surprise of many, the biggest drug affecting humanity was the rabies vaccine invented by Louis Pasteur in 1885, which shocked the world’s media when rabies was a rare and deadly disease, and for every time a child was bitten by a dog, no matter how small the wound was. Parents are afraid, and the media often report that the patient’s death is painful and that doctors are helpless with rabies.

Pasteur’s success in treating the first rabies patients, which made headlines not only in France but around the world, said that the rabies vaccine was different from other medical methods and different from patented drugs. It established a revolutionary new concept: the concept of medical progress.

The smallpox vaccine didn’t make headlines, and stethoscopes, ether anaesthetic, disinfection, and microbial theories didn’t make headlines, but the stories and pictures of the treatment of deadly rabies created a new model – a new pattern that the public expects, not only affecting news coverage, but also the development of new drugs and therapies. Examples include anti-diphtheria serum, vitamins, insulin for diabetes, antibiotics, heart transplants and artificial hearts.

These headlines do not represent advances in modern medicine, but the rabies vaccine changed the basic expectation that, for the first time in history, patients were not interested in a doctor’s degree or long-term medical experience, but rather whether drug developers worked in the laboratory and provided the latest research results.

Since then, people have been willing to donate money for medical research, not just to hospitals, and soon enthusiasm for the novelty and practicality of medical breakthroughs has shifted to other scientific fields, with X-rays, radon, flight, Einstein’s theory of scientific research, atomic bombs, DNA, Genomics and other scientific fields of news coverage.

Jonathan Reinarz

Professor of Medical History, University of Birmingham, USA.

“Smile is the best medicine for people with mental illness and autism. “

世界上最好的医学技术是什么?狂犬病疫苗革命性创新

Which drug is the best in the world? I think it should be “smile”, I’m on mental illness and autism recently, and I think it’s best to be humble in answering that question, because when we face the greatest health threat in the world today, we need to turn to prevention mode, so, as well as the optimism of keeping a smile, Healthy food and pure drinking water are very good “drugs”.

But if you’re looking for a “medical intervention”, a real medical technology that has been packaged and sold or offered to the public as a “drug,” insulin, physiological saline or blood transfusions are the best options, and seat belts, fire extinguishers, helmets and swimming vests will also appear on the list.

David Rosner. Rosner)

Professor of History and Social Medicine, Columbia University, USA.

Pure water could undoubtedly save millions of lives when it is offered to children in poor communities as a “good medicine”.

世界上最好的医学技术是什么?狂犬病疫苗革命性创新

Pure water is probably the best medicine in the world, and many infectious diseases, such as cholera, typhoid fever, onchocerciasis, malaria, are transmitted through contaminated or non-flowing water sources, where mosquitoes breed and transmit germs.

It sounds “simple”, but if you use pure water as a “drug” that can save millions of lives when it comes to children in poor communities, if you look at and analyze the major disease events that have transformed human history, you’ll find that there were many infectious diseases in the 19th century, some of which were transmitted by air. Some are due to the crowded environment, the lack of air circulation, the patient directly infects the virus to others, or through rats to humans. But the introduction of a well-developed sanitary water system for pure water supply and sewage treatment, as an intervention for the entire population, could reduce the spread of infectious diseases, and essentially the best “good medicine” would be to eradicate poverty, after which the scope of good medicine could be extended to vaccines, antibiotics and other medical technologies.

Alexandre White

Assistant Professor of Sociology at Johns Hopkins University in the United States, studying the social impact of infectious disease outbreaks in historical and contemporary settings, as well as the global response mechanism to infectious disease outbreaks.

“If hiv is not detectable by someone, a combination of condoms and antiretrovirals can prevent the spread of HIV through sexual mating”.

世界上最好的医学技术是什么?狂犬病疫苗革命性创新

Disease prevention is the world’s best “good medicine”, which sounds old-fashioned, but it is often true and effective, and by the late 1970s, the medical and global public health sectors may have solved the problem of the spread of infectious diseases – smallpox has been eradicated, polio is fading away, infectious disease disasters are history, yellow fever, plague, measles Mumps and rubella can be cured with antibiotics or prevented by vaccines.

However, we are beginning to be threatened by new diseases, such as HIV, Ebola, SARS, which kill many people and cause global lypagate diseases, and although we do not have effective measures to cure HIV or the Ebola virus, many potential treatments are still in the experimental stage, And some precautions have emerged. If a person is not detectable with HIV, condoms combined with antiretrovirals can prevent the spread of HIV through sexual mating, and yellow fever and measles vaccines can make vaccinated people immune to prevent the spread of the disease.

Vaccines are particularly important to stop the spread of diseases such as measles, as they limit the likelihood of a deadly mutation of pathogens that may reduce the efficacy of existing drugs, which is critical because measles cases and deaths are on the rise world, affecting the adolescent population the most.

Mikael Raz

Professor of History at the University of Rochester and author of “The Pre-brain White Matter Excision: The Formation of Mental Surgery in the United States.”

“The largest decline in mortality was the result of public health interventions in the 19th century, rather than by the many innovative medical practices that followed. “

The best “good medicines” in the world are low-cost, high-efficiency helpers, so they should be active and effective public health interventions that have important and measurable health benefits, often at a lower cost but with many benefits. Nevertheless, when children do not have access to clean drinking water, much remains to be done, and historically the greatest decline in mortality has been the result of public health interventions in the 19th century, rather than the many innovative medical practices that followed.

Melanie Goon

Associate Professor of Health, Social and Population History, University of Kentucky, USA, is mainly engaged in medical history research.

“Until the bacteriological theory came along, it was impossible to develop targeted drugs, because the cause of infectious diseases has been a mystery. “

It’s a difficult question to answer, because for every patient facing a life-threatening or chronic disease, the drugs that keep them healthy seem to be the most important, and if you want to find a specific “best drug,” smallpox vaccines and penicillin come to my mind because they open the way for other vaccines and sulfonamides. These vaccines and drugs have saved countless lives.

If medicine were to be defined more broadly, I would say that the best medicine is the discovery of bacterial theory, and that it was impossible to develop targeted drugs until the theory of bacteria emerged, because the cause of infectious diseases has always been a mystery, and without awareness of the causefactors, human efforts to cure the disease would probably go astray, during the cholera epidemic of 1833, It seems absurd from the perspective of modern observers to shoot people from “bad air” and cholera, and it is impossible to find a cure if people do not know that the virus in the water is responsible for the spread of the disease. After the emergence of bacterial theory and the introduction of sulfonamide drugs, treatment stomes for some deadly diseases were available to treat tuberculosis, typhoid fever and diphtheria.

Stephanie Snow

Senior Fellow in Medical Education, University of Manchester, UK, focusing on the development of human medicine and healthcare since the 19th century.

“The clinical evidence of anaesthetic to eliminate surgical pain with anaesthetic has no adverse effects on the patient, and the pain during childbirth can be alleviated without harming the mother or baby. “

世界上最好的医学技术是什么?狂犬病疫苗革命性创新

In the late 1840s, with the introduction of anaesthetic, the human medical experience changed irreversibly, with painless surgery and dental surgery, as well as reducing the pain during childbirth, as a direct result of inhaling chemicals such as ether and chloroform. But anaesthetic sedation has also catalyzed a profound and widespread shift in cognitive attitudes towards physical pain in social groups and medical techniques.

Until the end of the 18th century, pain during surgery was considered a irritant that could help the body cope with the stress of surgery, and that pain, chronic illness and death during childbirth were inevitable in human life, and the clinical indication that the use of anaesthetic to eliminate surgical pain had no adverse effects on patients. The pain of childbirth can be alleviated without harming the mother or baby, and by the end of the 19th century, anaesthetist, as doctors and patients, was one of the most important discoveries of the century and a prominent symbol of humanitarian and civilized society.

It’s hard to imagine any other innovative medical technology that could have such a positive and wide-ranging impact that people could benefit from anaesthetic surgery without suffering.

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