Take DNA as genetic material, in addition to the Earth’s creatures, there are aliens?

If aliens did exist, what would it look like in structure? What kind of information would we better tell about life on alien Earth? Some scientists believe that, based on existing knowledge, the laws of physics are consistent throughout the universe, and therefore may determine the laws of physics on which we are biologically based, as in aliens.

And the genetic code in our bodies may serve as a basis for mutual understanding between humans and aliens.

If aliens had come to Earth and learned about life on Earth, would they have been surprised that there were so many species on Earth that they enjoyed the same genetic material? Will all this be too familiar to aliens? Some scientists believe that the structure of genetic material is the same throughout the universe. Although exoplanets may produce life forms that are not available on Earth, the diversity of species is fundamentally limited by genetic mechanisms.

Currently, we have sequenced only a small portion of life on Earth, and it was not until recent years that the human genome was sequenced. In addition, scientists have succeeded in cloning some animals. And if extraterrestrial civilizations are not ethically barriers to cloning, sending the genetic codes of humans and other species to extraterrestrial civilizations would be the most effective way to make them aware of the creatures of the earth.

Interstellar Information

From the very beginning, we mentioned our genetic makeup in extraterrestrial transmissions. Although scientists announced in 2003 that they had sequenced the human genome, the map did not include each of our bases, and many non-coding sequences were not shown. In 1974, however, the Radio Signal “Arecibo Message” sent into space by the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico contained a rough shape of the double helix structure of DNA.

Take DNA as genetic material, in addition to the Earth's creatures, there are aliens?

Arecibo Radio Telescope Picture: Arecibo Observatory

In 1999, two interstellar messages, “Cosmic Calls,” contained symbols of the four nucleotides that make up DNA. So far, however, scientists have incorporated genetic information in only one interstellar wireless communication.

To mark the 35th anniversary of Arecibo’s message, Joe Davis came to Puerto Rico to depict a genetic sequence of the 1,5-diastophonate-colyssinate enzyme (RuBisCO) molecule. RuBisCO is the most abundant protein on Earth and plays an important role in the conversion of carbon dioxide into high-energy molecules in plants. In order to incorporate this genetic information into the signal, Davis initially considered using a binary 2-bit ID (C-00, T-01, A-10, G-11) to represent 1434 nucleotides in the molecule, creating a 2868-bit sequence representing the RuBisCO molecule. The problem with doing this, of course, is that we’re not like alien E.T. Elliott, the little boy in the “”, can get enough information for analysis. As a result, any alien receiving this message cannot be sure of the encoding pattern used to create the message, which can actually be a cloud of incomprehensible data for them.

In any case, it is unlikely that any alien will receive Davis’s message, let alone understand it. What’s more, none of Davis’s selected stars have been confirmed to show signs of planets. In addition, there are two planets in the target star system that seem unlikely to sustain life: a star, GJ 83.1, with periodic bursts of radiation, and a red dwarf star, Teegarden,, which is recognized as too cold to sustain life. Unless the planets are close enough to Tigaden to be locked by the tides, half of the planets will be in polar night.

Considering the lack of background and redundant information about Davis’s information, correct the information that arises during transmission. So even if there are aliens in the galaxies of his choice, there is little chance that they will be able to interpret the information. Davis first suggested that his interstellar message meant more to Earthlings than to aliens. But this gimmick points a clear way to sending information to extraterrestrial civilizations (messaging extraterrestrial Intelligence, METI).

Extraterrestrial life forms

Over the past decade, biologists have sequenced the genomes of thousands of species, including humans. In fact, the genome is a “blueprint” for species, and we’re just getting to know how to read these genetic codes. Advanced enough aliens may have developed genetic engineering, and the genome has been the equivalent of an executable computer program that allows aliens to recreate humans and other Earth creatures in their own laboratories. Of course, this happens on the premise that aliens and life on Earth are made up of the same genetic material, when in fact, this assumption is not as exaggerated as initially thought.

To some extent, contact with flesh-and-blood, almost hair-covered human-shaped aliens is more disturbing than contact with cephalopod aliens with eight eyes. Astrobiologist Charles Cockell points out that experimental evidence suggests that certain characteristics of life are determined by physical laws. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that “extraterrestrial life, at all levels of structure, may seem surprisingly similar to the known life on Earth”.

Corker believes that aliens may have similar mindsets to us because they follow the same basic physical laws as we do. This is similar to the view of Marvin Minsky, a pioneer of cognitive scientists. Minsky thinks aliens will think the same way as we do, so humans will be able to talk to them. Minsky argues that if aliens face the same basic problems (space, time, and material constraints) and their methods of solving them are determined by the natural properties of the problems, then aliens will find a solution similar to ours, that is, to represent these problems with a symbology and to manipulate them with computational processing. This process can also be symbolized.

Of course, opportunity also plays an important role in the evolutionary trajectory of life, so the idea that evolution is entirely determined by the laws of physics would be too rash. Studies, for example, show that 66 million years ago, an asteroid hit Earth caused a global temperature drop and the mass extinction of dinosaurs, after which mammals began to flourish and changed the evolution of life on Earth. Although the probability of an asteroid hitting Earth is very low, it changes the evolutionary trajectory of life on Earth after it occurs, and it would never have been predicted if the evolution was judged by the laws of physics.

Same password

Considering that there is cell life on earth. Do we want to find cell life on exoplanets? Or have extraterrestrial organisms found a self-assembling model that differs from cell life?

In the 1980s, biologist David Dimmer extracted argon from the famous Murchison meteorite to demonstrate that these simple molecules, when added to water, can spontaneously form cell membranes. Cockerill said the demonstration showed that components of cellular life were “everywhere in the carbon-rich rocks of the solar system.” This means that any primitive cloud has elements in the original cloud that are expected to produce cells, and are ready to spread these raw cell materials to any planet waiting for a lot of precipitation. Subsequent tests have found that meteorites are not the only molecular material source for cell membranes, suggesting that this tissue pattern may be common in the universe.

Similar physical laws limit many basic possibilities in biology, such as the structure of DNA. One of the characteristics of DNA is that it consists of only four nucleotides, adenine, thymus, cytosine, and otosin. These four nucleotides follow the principle of base complementary pairing: adenine and thymus, cytosine and ostrich pairing. Is it an evolutionary surprise that there are only four nucleotides and they must be paired? Could the genetic code of an alien be made up of six or more nucleotides? Could it be possible that the nucleotides of aliens are different from the four nucleotides that make up the DNA of life on Earth? Of course this is possible, but we have good reason to believe that this is unlikely.

The introduction of more nucleotides will lead to an increase in the amount of genetic information available in the system. This means that the information that smaller molecules in the hexanucleotide system can carry is comparable to that carried by the larger molecules in the quad nucleotide system. The price, of course, is that whenever an extra pair of base pairs is added to the system, the proportion of nucleotides that one nucleotide can pair with another is reduced accordingly.

For example, in a dual nucleotide system, each nucleotide can be paired with half of the nucleotides, but in a quad nucleotide system, each nucleotide can only be paired with a quarter of the nucleotides, and as the number of nucleotides increases, the chance of pairing is also pushed. As a result, Coker argues, when nucleotides increase, it is difficult to find enough different nucleotide bases to distinguish them easily when molecules replicate, which ultimately leads to an increase in the error rate of the replication process. In fact, the computer model of RNA shows that the quadnucleotide system is the most appropriate system.

In the computer model, the researchers used synthetic nucleotides to expand the number of gene-coded base pairs, and found that replacing normal base pairs with these synthetic base pairs, or adding new synthetic base pairs to the normal system, would destabilize the genetic process. However, under strict laboratory conditions, the addition of synthetic nucleotides to organisms such as bacteria can steadily expand the genetic code. The researchers are also experimenting with a number of possible base pairs, and the results show that the four-base pair pattern of RNA and DNA is best suited for the replication of genetic material and is best suited to maintaining their structure.

If the brain and the entire cognitive structure are optimized for the experience of life, it is not surprising that aliens think like we do.