On February 27, the High-Tech Research and Development Center of the Ministry of Science and Technology released the “Top Ten Progresses in Science in China in 2019”. Preliminary evidence of the release of the moon’s skin was detected, heterogeneous chips for artificial general intelligence were constructed, the treatment of autoimmune diseases based on DNA detection enzyme regulation was proposed, and the protein structure and function of underwater photosynthesis of algae were cracked.
Based on the genetic engineering of materials, high-temperature block metal glass was developed, the mechanism of niobium ions to enhance the solar battery life of calcium titanium ore was clarified, the Discovery of the Denisova son in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the satellite test of the gravitationally induced quantum dephase model was realized, and the structure and assembly mechanism of the African swine plague virus were revealed. For the first time, 10 major scientific advances, such as the 3D quantum Hall effect, were observed.
1. Preliminary evidence of the detection of the material exposure of the moon’s earth
Li Chunlai, a team and collaborators from the National Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, reported preliminary spectral detection results of visible light and near-infrared spectrometer (VNIS) configured on Jade Rabbit 2, and analyzed the presence of low calcium (slope) flint and olivine, a combination of minerals that most likely represent deep matter originating in the moon. Further geological background analysis showed that the material was excavated from the nearby 72 km diameter Fensom impact crater and ejected into the lunar material at the landing site of The No. 4. The significance of this work lies in the revelation of the material composition of the moon, which provides new constraints for the early study of magma ocean on the moon, and deepens the understanding of the inner formation and evolution of the moon.
2, the framework of the heterogeneous chip for artificial universal intelligence
It is important to develop a common platform that supports both popular computer science-based artificial neural networks and neuroscience-inspired models and algorithms. The Shi Luping research team and collaborators of Tsinghua University proposed a sky-machine chip architecture, which efficiently integrates the above two methods and provides a heterogeneous integrated collaborative computing platform. The chip uses a hybrid coding scheme of multicore structure, reconfigurable components, and streamlined data streams, which can independently support both computer science-based machine learning algorithms and neuroscience-led algorithms, as well as multiple coding schemes in neuroscience, as well as heterogeneous hybrid modeling of both, providing new solutions. Using only one chip, the researchers demonstrated the simultaneous processing of common algorithms and models in driverless bicycle systems, enabling real-time target detection, tracking, voice control, barrier avoidance, barrier and balance control. The research is expected to pave the way for the development of a more common hardware platform and promote the development of AGI.
3, proposed the treatment of autoimmune diseases based on DNA detection enzyme regulation
Finding effective control of cGAS activity and exploring its regulatory mechanism are essential to the treatment of viral infection and autoimmune diseases. Zhang Xuemin and Li Tao of the Institute of Military Medicine (National Biomedical Analysis Center) and their collaborators found that acetylation modification is a key molecular event to control cGAS activity, and revealed the regulatory laws behind it. The study not only reveals the key regulatory mechanism of the body’s anti-viral infection, but also finds effective cGAS inhibitors, which provide potential treatment strategies for autoimmune diseases such as AGS (Aicardi syndrome).
4. Crack the protein structure and function of algae underwater photosynthesis
Shen Jianren and Yan Tingyun Research Group of the Institute of Plant Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported on the high-resolution crystal structure of marine diatoms-triangular brown finger algae FCP, revealing the detailed binding sites of 7 chlorophylla, 2 chlorophyllc, 7 ialysin and possibly 1 diatom algae yellow in the protein stent. This reveals the efficient energy transfer between chlorophyll a and c. The research progress first solves the mystery of the supermolecular structure and function of diatom and green algae photosynthesis protein, which is not only of great significance to reveal the efficient transformation mechanism of photoenergy for photosynthesis in nature, but also provides new ideas and strategies for artificial simulation of photosynthesis, guiding the design of new crops, and building intelligent plant factories.
5, based on the material genetic engineering to develop high temperature block metal glass
Liu Yanhui, a research group and collaborator son of the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, developed a high-throughput experimental method with high-throughput characteristics of high efficiency, non-destructiveness and easy to promote based on the concept of material genetic engineering, designed an Ir-Ni-Ta-(B) alloy system, and obtained high-temperature block metal glass, with a glass conversion temperature of up to 1162 K. The high-throughput experimental method developed by this research has a strong practicality, subverts the material research and development mode of “fried vegetable type” in the field of metal glass for 60 years, confirms the effectiveness and high efficiency of material genetic engineering in the research and development of new materials, opens up a new way to solve the difficult problem of high-efficiency exploration of new materials of metal glass, and also opens up a new way for the new high temperature, new high temperature, new high temperature, The design of high-performance alloy materials offers new ideas.
6. Clarify the mechanism of niobium ion sonto-boost solar battery life of calcium-titanium ore
The titanium-titanium solar cell is a new generation of photovoltaic technology which is widely concerned, and its working stability is the main obstacle to industrialization. In order to improve the stability of the current sign, The Zhou Huanping Research Group of Peking University School of Engineering, Yan Chunhua/Sun Yidong Research Group of the School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering and their collaborators proposed that by introducing the ion pair (Eu3/ Eu2 plus) as a “redox shuttle” in the active layer of calcium titanium ore, it can eliminate both Pb0 and I0 defects, thus greatly improving the service life of the device. This method solves an important essential factor that limits its stability in lead brine calcium titanium ore solar cells, and can be extended to other calcium-titanium optoelectronic devices, which is also of reference significance for other inorganic semiconductor devices facing similar problems.
7. The Tibetan Plateau found the Denisovans
Chen Fahu Research Group of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Zhang Dongju Of Lanzhou University, together with Jean-Jacques Hublin of the Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology of the Map Society of Germany, reported on a jaw bone identified as the Denisova syldow using the analysis method of paleoprotein. The jaw bone comes from the White Rock Cliff Cave in Xiahe County, Gansu Province, China. The fossil specimen is the first Denisovan fossil evidence found outside the Denisovan cave, and a comprehensive analysis of the specimen also provides extensive physical morphological information for the Denisovan study, including information on jaw and tooth morphology. The study showed that the Denisovans had lived at high altitudes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau long before the arrival of modern Homo sapiens, and had successfully adapted to the high-cold, oxygen-deprived environment.
8. Satellite test of gravitational-induced quantum dephased model
Pan Jianwei of The University of Science and Technology of China and his colleagues Peng Chengzhi and Fan Jingyun, using the “Mozi” quantum science experimental satellite, took the lead in the international field to carry out an experimental test of gravitational-induced quantum entanglement de-linking in space, and tested the de-phase of quantum entangled photons through the gravitational field of the earth. According to the theoretical model of “event form”, the correlation of entangled photons in the gravitational field of the earth will be lost in probability, while according to the existing theory of quantum mechanics, all entangled photon pairs will maintain the entanglement characteristics. In the end, the results of satellite experiments do not support the prediction of the “event form” theoretical model, but are consistent with the standard quantum theory. This is the first time in the world that quantum satellites have been used to test experimentally the theory of attempting to fuse quantum mechanics with general relativity in the gravitational field of the earth, which will greatly promote the basic theory of physics and experimental research.
9. Reveal the structure of the African swine fever virus and its assembly mechanism
Rao Zi and/Wang Xiangxi of the Institute of Biophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Team of Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, together with the Shanghai University of Science and Technology, collected high-quality data continuously at the Frozen Mirror Center of Shanghai University of Science and Technology, using an optimized image reconstruction strategy, and analyzed the three-dimensional structure of the African swine plague virus crust, with a resolution of 4.1 E. These structural details reveal the stability of the crust and the molecular basis of assembly, which is of great theoretical significance to the development of the African swine fever vaccine.
10. 3D Quantum Hall Effect Observed for the first time
More than 30 years ago, Bertrand Halperin et al. theoretically predicted the possibility of a quantum Hall effect in a three-dimensional electrogastic system, but so far the “three-dimensional quantum Hall effect” has not been experimentally observed. In collaboration with Zhang Liyuan Research Group of the Department of Physics of Southern University of Science and Technology, Qiao Zhenhua Research Group of the Department of Physics of the University of Science and Technology of China, and Yang Shengyuan of The University of Science and Technology design of Singapore, the first experiment in the clump syllastation (ZrTe5) crystal seqr al-Zr5 was realized. The progress of this study provides experimental evidence of the three-dimensional quantum Hall effect and provides a promising platform for further exploration of the singular quantum phase and its phase changes in the three-dimensional electronic system.
The selection of “Ten Progresses in Science in China” has been held for 15 years, aiming to publicize the progress of major basic research science in China, to stimulate the scientific enthusiasm and dedication of the scientific and technological workers, to popularize basic research science, to promote public understanding, care and support for basic research, and to create a good scientific atmosphere in the whole society.
In 2019, 5 editorial departments, including China Basic Science, Science and Technology Guide, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Science Foundation and Science Bulletin, recommended 320 scientific research advances. The High-Tech Research and Development Center of the Ministry of Science and Technology invited experts to select 30 progress items for the final election. The final election took the online vote, inviting more than 2,600 experts and scholars, including academicians of the two houses, the director of the national key laboratory, experts and project leaders of some national key research and development programs, to vote online, and the top 10 winners were selected in the “Top Ten Progresses in Chinese Science in 2019”.