For the first time, scientists have discovered animals on Earth that don’t need to breathe and don’t have mitochondrial genomes, according to lifescience. The parasite, called Henneguya salminicola, has spores that can be implanted into delicious salmon and, surprisingly, the only animal on Earth known not to breathe.
1. In fact, the pair of “eyes” are stinging cells, which do not contain venom, but will help the parasites catch the host if necessary, and these stinging cells are the only undisappeared features of their evolutionary history.
If an animal infects the dense muscle tissue of fish and aquatic worms like a salmon-spriding worm, it may not convert oxygen into energy. However, DNA scientists can sequence the genes of all other multicellular animals on Earth because they have breathing genes in their bodies, while salmon spores do not have breathing genes. The new study is published In the February 24 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The scientists conducted a microscope and genomic analysis of the animal, which showed that unlike all other known animals, it had no mitochondrial genome, a tiny genome stored in the animal’s mitochondria, but played a vital role, including the genes responsible for breathing.
2. Under a fluorescent microscope, salmon spores appear bright green, they do not need to breathe to live in the salmon body, and no mitochondrial genome.
Although this is the first time that animals that do not need to breathe have been found in biology, this is a peculiar feature for this strange parasite, which, like many sticky parasites, has evolved with few multicellular features.
‘They’ve lost tissue, nerve cells, muscles, everything, and now they’re losing their ability to breathe,’ said Doroth?e Huchon, an evolutionary biologist at Tel Aviv University in Israel. But this genomic shrinkage may have some advantages for parasites such as salmon spores, which thrive by breeding rapidly.
Sticky insects have the smallest genes in the animal world, which makes their reproduction very efficient. Although salmon spores are relatively “benign”, other sticky parasites are infectious to fishery populations and have a serious impact on fishermen’s economic income.
When you see white bubbles popping out of the fish, the salmon spore looks like a string of single-celled bubbles, and the fish infected by the parasite is said to suffer from cassava disease. Looking under a microscope, the spores look like blue sperm cells, with two tails and an oval pair of alien-like eyes.
In fact, the pair of “eyes” are stinging cells that do not contain venom, but will help the parasites catch the host when necessary, and these stinging cells are the only undisappeared features of their evolutionary history.
Huchon points out that animals are often thought of as multicellular organisms, with many genes, and evolving more and more complex, but we found that salmon spores are “completely opposite” organisms, which evolved in reverse and evolved into single-celled organisms.
So how do salmon spores get energy if they don’t breathe? The researchers aren’t sure. Other similar parasites can also be fed adenosine triphosphate (basically molecular energy) directly from the infected host, the researchers note, and that salmon spores may have such behavior, and more in-depth research could help solve the animal’s strange genome mystery.