The 2011 Nobel Prize was hit again: is the premise not true to dark energy research?

Accounting for nearly 70% of the universe, driving the universe to expand at an accelerated rate, but do not know where to come from, what form. Even with the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics, dark energy remains one of the most “mystery” and “hanging” concepts in astrophysics. On March 5, local time, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany, announced that a team of scientists led by Maria Bergemann had used more advanced models to study the spectra of 42 stars to analyze the levels of chemical elements in them.

The 2011 Nobel Prize was hit again: is the premise not true to dark energy research?

The specific conclusion is that the relative ratio of manganese to iron in the Milky Way has remained constant over the past 13 billion years. The discovery directly challenges the current way of measuring dark energy, the expansion rate of the universe (the Hubble constant).

Wait, how does the spectrum of stars involve dark energy, or even the expansion of the universe? This intermediate reasoning process can be described as a mountain road, involving many different areas of astronomy knowledge.

For easy understanding, let’s start with a simple logical combing:

2011 Nobel Prize: Ia supernova has the same brightness (i.e. “standard candlelight” concept) – Comparing the “standard candlelight” and the actual ia supernova brightness can counter-launch their distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Map astronomy: Different supernova eruptions will spill different proportions of manganese and iron elements . . . the ratio of manganese/iron elements in galaxies is roughly constant . . . If such an element altogether is to be formed, ia supernovae must erupt in more than one way than ia supernovae with different bursts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

In fact, new detection data have been available over the past two years and are not compatible with the presence of dark energy. Just two months ago, South Korea’s Yonsei University reported at the Annual Astronomical Society of America that there was a significant correlation between the brightness of type Ia supernovae and the age of the star cluster. Taking into account the evolution of supernovae due to age-induced brightness, there is no room for dark energy to change.

Despite differences in angle and interpretation mechanisms, both German and Korean studies pointed out that Type Ia supernovae were not previously considered “standard candlelight.” By counting the expansion of the universe on their basis, there may be fatal false premises.

Supernova: Skyflower

Stars in the same universe are different in mass and environment. Our tiny sun may only extinguish into a mediocre white dwarf, but there are also some large-mass stars that explode violently at the end of the day, becoming a short-lived and extremely bright “star”: a supernova.

The Type Ia supernova described above is usually formed by a white dwarf plus an ordinary star. White dwarfs constantly absorb outer hydrogen from poor partners, and their own mass increases, and when it reaches a “Chandraseca limit” (about 1.44 times the mass of the sun), it is bound to explode, according to the basic laws of physics.

Since type Ia supernovae are all erupting at this mass, the brightness is the same. On this “standard candlelight” hypothesis, astronomers happily calculate the distance of the Type Ia supernova and sketch the story of the expansion and dark energy of the universe.

Supernovas have also played a role in the evolution of the universe. At the beginning of the Big Bang, there were only hydrogen and helium elements, and then, in star activity, heavier elements such as carbon were gradually converged.

But manganese, iron and such a magnitude of elements, must have supernova such a high-energy “melting pot” can be refined, as the explosion spread into the cosmic nebula, become the raw material for the brewing of future generations of stars.

In other words, manganese and iron are accumulated from generational supernova explosions, and the younger the galaxy tends to be rich in metal elements.

Manganese/iron ratio: 13 billion years as one

The problem is the content of manganese.

Atoms of different elements emit different spectra because of their different structure. So, from the early 20th century, astronomers used the spectra emitted from the star’s atmosphere to analyze what chemical elements were contained.

However, these initial models were rough and simplified on many details. The advanced version of spectroscopic tools used by Maria Bergman’s team became possible with multidisciplinary developments, including advances in the fine structure of atomic spectroscopy, stellar thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and even overcomputing capabilities.

Interestingly, some elements, such as iron, are analyzed with rough and cash versions of the spectrum, while others, such as manganese, are far apart.

Bergman’s team used the Very Large telescope and the Keck telescope to track 42 stars (the oldest one formed 13 billion years ago). Based on the relative age of these stars, the researchers were able to restore the evolution of manganese and iron content in the Milky Way.

Surprisingly, the ratio of manganese/iron elements in and around the Milky Way was roughly constant, almost constant, over the 13 billion years.

“Standard candlelight” is not standard.

Since different forms of supernova explosions emit different proportions of manganese and iron, it would be wrong to say that Ia supernovae are usually caused by a white dwarf star absorbing the mass of a companion star.

According to Bergman’s calculations, if the manganese/iron ratio were to remain at such a constant, only a quarter of the Ia supernova explosionwould would have been born from the classic model described above, and the remaining three-quarters would be in other forms, such as two white dwarfs or two stars.

These forms reach different masses of explosive conditions, and thus the supernova brightness is different. The Type Ia supernova has lost its “standard candlelight” speciality and cannot be used to accurately measure galaxy distance and cosmic expansion.

While the Bergman team’s conclusion is subject to academic scrutiny, a team at the California Institute of Technology has obtained similar results in several dwarf galaxies, according to Mapu Astro.

ESA’s GAIA Space Telescope will release the third phase of the probe in 2021, which could involve different types of Ia supernovae.

In any case, in the face of the evidence of the various discrepancies available, cosmologists may have to re-examine the Hubble constant and dark energy.